For humans, group membership promotes survival, motivation, and a sense of self.
Through the process of enculturation, we learn who belongs in our group (in-group) and who does not belong (out-group). Commitment to our groups can be positive and enriching or destructive which results in infrahumanization, negative stereotypes and discrimination. We are individuals, with unique personalities, motivations and desires but culture influences our group membership and our social identity.
Collectivist cultures are those in which the primary unit of measurement is the group; likely to emphasize duty and obligation over personal aspirations
Compliance occurs when there is a direct request to change your behavior or attitude and you agree.
Conformity occurs when you change your attitude or behavior to match a perceived social norm; this can be voluntary or involuntary (unconscious). There is not a direct request to change.
Cooperation or the coordination of multiple individuals toward a goal that benefits the entire group, is a fundamental feature of human social life.
Discrimination is behavior that advantages or disadvantages people based only on their group membership; this refers to behaviors
Empathy is the ability to understand someone’s emotional experience; we take on that person’s perspective and try to understand his or her point of view,
Entitativity is the process that shifts a group of individuals who might be gathered at the same place to suddenly coalescence as a group with goals and intent Social identity theory notes that people categorize each other into groups, favoring their own group.
Explicit prejudice occurs at the conscious level, is deliberately formed and is easy to self-report
Favoritism is the preferential treatment for ingroup members
Implicit prejudice occurs at the unconscious level, is involuntarily formed and unknown to us
Individualist cultures are those in which the primary unit of measurement is the individual. Individualists are likely to emphasize uniqueness and personal aspirations over social duty.
Infrahumanization is a perception of the outgroup, the belief that others are less human – more animal like; we have seen this in history as a reason for genocide of a group
In group refers to people who belong to the same social group as you; are generally viewed more favorably than members of an out group
Out group refers to people who belong to different social groups than you; generally viewed less favorably than members of an in group
Obedience occurs when one responds to an order or command from a person in a position of authority or by a person that is perceived to be in authority.
Prejudice is an evaluation (judgement) or emotion toward people merely based on their group membership; this can occur consciously or unconsciously.
Stereotypes are beliefs that characterizes people based merely on their group membership.