Chapter Review

Culture is one of the most powerful forces in the world. It shapes how we make sense of our world, how we express ourselves and how we understand and relate to others (ingroups and outgroups). Most ethnocentric bias and prejudice come from a difference in heritage, thinking and experiences. We tend to examine a situation from our own point of view and are often unable to apply principles of cultural relativism to individuals with whom we have differences. It is important to remember that we do not need to act on our biases and can override our automatic responses. By identifying our implicit and ethnocentric bias through personal reflection and cultural awareness we are more creative, better communicators, and more likely to engage in critical thinking and evaluating information. Cultural awareness does not mean that you must accept or condone behaviors; awareness is recognition that cultures and individuals within those cultures have been shaped through enculturation, ecology, resources and social norms that are appropriate, moral and just within their culture.


Acculturation is the process of social, psychological, and cultural change that occurs as a result of blending between cultures

Bilingualism refers to the ability to understand and produce two or more languages on a regular basis

Contact hypothesis is a method used to reduce prejudice and help people create closer connections with members of different groups

Cultural frame switching refers to the process of bicultural or multicultural individuals accessing different culture-specific mental modules

Cultural code switching involves changing from one way of speaking to another between or within interactions and includes changes verbal and non-verbal communication

Culture shock is a common experience describing feelings of confusion, stress and disorientation that occur when entering an unfamiliar culture

Cultural reaffirmation is a phenomenon that occurs when multicultural individuals living in multicultural societies endorse even more traditional values than persons from the native country or monoculture individuals

Identity denial occurs when individuals are NOT accepted as a member of the group that he/she identifies with

Stereotype threat is a “situational threat” in which individuals are aware of others’ negative expectations, which leads to their fear that they will be judged and/or treated as inferior


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Culture and Psychology Copyright © 2020 by L D Worthy; T Lavigne; and F Romero is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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