Chapter Review

Personality traits are not just a useful way to describe people; they actually help psychologists predict if someone is going to be a good worker, how long he or she will live, and the types of jobs and activities the person will enjoy. The culture in which you live is one of the most important factors that shapes your personality and Western ideas about personality may not be applicable to other cultures. In fact, there is evidence that the strength of personality traits varies across cultures. It may be most productive to think of the Five Factor Model as a framework for beginning to explore systematically individual differences in behavior within a particular culture.

Identity and self are linked concepts that encompasses what we think and feel about ourselves, as well as our relationships with others. Neuro-cultural research confirms self as a universal but culture contexts define the conditions that self will be expressed. For example, certain values are emphasized or sanctioned within culture (e.g., modesty, independence, cooperation, empathy). Independent and interdependent self-concepts coexist simultaneously within individuals and culture provides the framework for self-expression.


Better than average effect (BTAE] is considered a form of bias or inaccuracy in self-assessment because while most people are average, only a minority of people recognize this reality

Characteristic refers qualities of culture and what is considered good and bad within a specific culture.

Cultural identity (sometimes called collective identity) is similar to social identity and refers to our group members and the recognition that we are members of a group.

Identity is a psychological term used to explain the way individuals understand themselves as part of a social group and are recognized by others as members of the social group

Independent self refers to a sense of self that views the self as a bounded entity (separate) from others that are seen as important

Interdependent self refers to a sense of self that views the self as integrate, flexible and depends on the context or the situation; fundamental connectedness to others

Personal identity is the way that we understand ourselves (e.g., personality, traits, and preferences) and is closely related to our concept of self.

Personality is one of the things that make us unique from one another and are long term, stable, and not easily changed. Considered heritable and biological.

Personality traits reflect patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that are relatively consistency and stable but are influenced by situational determinants

Social identity reflects our understanding that we are members of groups.

Self is a psychological construct that unconsciously and automatically influences our thoughts, actions, and feelings.

Self-concept refers to cognitive representations of one’s own self or images one has about oneself; our sense of self is linked to how we see the world around us and is also linked to how we see our relationships.

Self-effacement is the tendency to downplay one’s virtues or characteristics

Self-enhancement is the name given to psychological processes that we use to bolster self-esteem

Temperament is a hereditary aspect of personality, including sensitivity, moods, irritability, and distractibility.  Temperament can be seen as part of our personality.


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Culture and Psychology Copyright © 2020 by L D Worthy; T Lavigne; and F Romero is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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