13.5 Attributions and References

Katherine J. Megivern

Creative Commons Attributions for Chapter Text

The following resources have been used for research, starting points, and inspiration for this chapter and are available to all under Fair Use or Creative Commons licensing. Unless otherwise noted in Attributed References or Media Assets, materials have been significantly reworked by the authors of this text.

[1] Physical Geography and Natural Disasters by R. Adam Dastrup, MA, GISP, is licensed under CC BY- NC-SA. https://slcc.pressbooks.pub/physicalgeography/

[2] An Introduction to Geology bu Johnsin, Affolter, Inkenbrandt, and Mosher is licensed under CC BY- NC-SA  https://geo.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Geology/Book%3A_An_Introduction_to_Geology_(Johnson_Affolter_Inkenbrandt_and_Mosher)/15%3A_Global_Climate_Change/15.02%3A_Earths_Temperature#:~:text=Organic%20matter%20from%20plants%20is,tens%20of%20thousands%20of%20years.

[3] Physical Geology by Steven Earle is licensed under CC BY. https://opentextbc.ca/geology/

[4] LibreTexts Biology. is licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0 https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Microbiology/Microbiology_(Boundless)/16%3A_Microbial_Ecology/16.02%3A_Soil_and_Plant_Microbiology/16.2A%3A_Soil_CompositionLibreTexts-Biology by Boundless is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 License.

[5] LibreTexts Biology. is licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0  https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Introductory_and_General_Biology/Book%3A_General_Biology_(Boundless)/31%3A_Soil_and_Plant_Nutrition/31.02%3A_The_Soil/31.2A%3A_Soil_Composition

[6] Physical Geology 2nd Edition by Steven Earle 2019 is licensed under CC BY.  https://opentextbc.ca/physicalgeology2ed/chapter/5-4-weathering-and-the-formation-of-soil/

[7] Concepts of Biology by Rebecca Roush, Smantha Fowler, and James Wise 2013-2023 is licensed under CC BY 4.0. https://openstax.org/details/books/concepts-biology

Media Assets


Fig. 13.0.1. JasonHS. (2020). Components of Soil Pie Chart. Retrieved July 22, 2022. https://bio.libretexts.org/Bookshelves/Microbiology/Microbiology_(Boundless)/16%3A_Microbial_Ecology/16.02%3A_Soil_and_Plant_Microbiology/16.2A%3A_Soil_Composition. CC BY-SA 4.0 International

  • Pie chart shows relative amounts of air, water, organic matter, and inorganic mineral matter in soil.


Video 13.1.1. Kathy Megivern. (2022.) Primary Ecological Succession in Soil Formation. (4:10) [Online video] CC BY-SA

  • This video explains how soil forms from bare rock, from the top down, and from the bottom up.

Figure 13.1.1. Mikenorton (2011). SoilTexture USDA.png. Retrieved July 23, 2023. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:SoilTexture_USDA.png. CC BY-SA 3.0 Unported

  • This diagram shows percentage of clay, silt, and sand in soils of named types based on particle size

Video 13.1.2. Garden Fundamentals. (2016). Understanding Soil Types and Soil Texture (test your own soil). (9:01) [Online Video]. Retrieved May 14, 2023. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AUhOBxVFcFk&ab_channel=GardenFundamentals

  • Excellent explanation of soil texture, the Soil Texture Triangle, and gardening applications

Figure 13.1.2. USDA/NRCS. (2005). Global Soil Regions. Retrieved July 23, 2023. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/USDA_soil_taxonomy, Public Domain

  • Worldwide distribution of USDA soil orders

Figure 13.1.3. Dominant Soil Orders. Retrieved July 23, 2023.  https://passel2.unl.edu/view/lesson/2eafec8dd762/3, Public Domain

  • Distribution of USDA/NRCS soil orders in the U.S.


Figure 13.2.1. U.S. Department of Agriculture. (Unknown date). Soil Profile. Retrieved May 29, 2023. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Soil_profile.png, Public Domain

  • Soil horizons labeled diagram


Figure 13.2.2. Ailith Stewart. (2006). Podzol. Retrieved July 23, 2023. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Podzol_-_geograph.org.uk_-_218892.jpg, CC BY-SA

  • Photo of soil horizons in the field

Figure 13.2.3. Kathy Megivern. (2023.) Loess Kindchen. Retrieved July 26, 2023. CC BY-NC-SA

  • Photo of a loess kindchen from Nebraska

Figure 13.2.4. Johann Dreo/Burkhard/Enviromental Protection Agency/Raeky. (2009). Nitrogen Cycle. Retrieved July 24, 2023. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nitrogen_Cycle.svg, CC BY-SA

  • Diagram of nitrogen cycle in which atmospheric nitrogen, unusable by plants, is transformed into usable forms via soil bacterial processes

Video 13.2.1. CrashCourse. (2013.) Nitrogen & Phosphorus Cycles: Always Recycle! Part 2-Crash Course Ecology #9. (9:21) [Online video]. Retrieved May 15, 2023. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=leHy-Y_8nRs&t=16s&ab_channel=CrashCourse

  • Fun, fast-paced, super-informative video on two critical biogeochemical cycles


Video 13.2.2. LearningGamesLab. (2017.) Cation Exchange. (5:49) [Online video]. Retrieved May 15, 2023. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HmEyymGXOfI&ab_channel=LearningGamesLab

  • The importance of clay in getting nutrients to plants and how this relates to fertilizers


Figure 13.2.1. John. (2007.) Occurrences of Soil Erosion. Retrieved July 24, 2023. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Occurrences_of_Soil_erosion.jpg, CC BY-SA 2.0 Generic

  • Photo shows extreme soil erosion

Video 13.3.1. Don Haas. (2013. Cryptobiotic Soil. (1:19) [Online video.] Retrieved May 5, 2023. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6TgIYXwgTqM&ab_channel=DonHaas

  • Demonstration of presence and viability of chorophyll by watering dormant biological soil crust


Video 13.3.2. CanyonlandsNPS. (2013.) Biological Soil Crust. (3:10) [Online video.] Retrieved May 5, 2023. https://www.youtube.com/watchv=hDvMkhLhjrI&t=73s&ab_channel=CanyonlandsNPS

  • Great overview of biological soil crusts and their importance


Figure 13.4.1. Openstax Concepts of Biology modification of work by John M. Evans and Howard Perlman, USGS. (2013/2023.) The Carbon Cycle. Retrieved July 24, 2023. https://openstax.org/books/concepts-biology/pages/20-2-biogeochemical-cycles, CC BY v4.0


Video 13.4.1. Plant Health Cure (PHC). 2017. PHC Film: Soil is a Living Organism. (11:55). [Online video] Retrieved May 2, 2023. https://www.youtube.com/watch?app=desktop&v=8ugaL6wsXME&t=13s&ab_channel=PlantHealthCureBV

  • Powerful and informative video on soil, its living organisms, and how to restore soil health

Video 13.4.2.SciToons, Brown University. 2021. Why is Composting Good for the Environment? (1:38). [Online Video] Retrieved July 26, 2023. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oFlsjRXbnSk&ab_channel=SciToons

  • This short video explains the problems with traditional trash disposal and the advantages of composting.

Video 13.4.3. CNBC. 2018. How San Francisco Became a Global Leader in Waste Management. (5:25). [Online Video] Retrieved July 26, 2023. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vDMgMvcCm6w&ab_channel=CNBC.

  • Excellent overview of San Francisco’s model waste management, including composting. The video also discusses the uses of the resulting quality soil/fertilizer.











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