8.7 Attributions and References

Creative Commons Attributions for Text

(0) UNESCO & Intergovernmental Oceanographic Comission. (2018). Ocean literacy for all. By Santoro, F.Santin, S., Scowcroft, G., Fauville, G.Tuddenham, P. Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO 

(1) Physical Geography and Natural Disasters by R. Adam Dastrup, MA, GISP is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

(2) Physical Geography by Lumen Learning is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

(3) Earth Science by Lumen Learning is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

(4) Physical Geology – 2nd Edition by Steven Earle is licensed under CC BY 4.0.

(5) Open Geography Education by R. Adam Dastrup is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA

(6) NOAA Glossary of Terms is licensed under Public Domain

(7) Introduction to Oceanography by P. Webb is licensed under CC-BY 4.0

​(8) An Introduction to Geology by Chris Johnson, Matthew D. Affolter, Paul Inkenbrandt, Cam Mosher is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Media Attributions

8.1 Earle, S (n.d.) Chesterman Beach near Tofino.  Retrieved May 8, 2021 from https://opentextbc.ca/physicalgeology2ed/wp-content/uploads/sites/298/2019/06/Chesterman-Beach-near-Tofino.png

  • Chesterman Beach near Tofino on the west coast Vancouver Island. The strip of sediment connecting the main beach to the rocky island is a tombolo. S. Earle, CC-BY


Video 8.1.1. UNESCO. (2017). One Planet, One Ocean [Online video]. Retrieved May 10, 2022 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YyiuLwhUpH4&ab_channel=UNESCO

  • The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO is a global community that enables nations to work together to study our ONE shared OCEAN and observe its changes. Join us to #SaveOurOcean and call for an International Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development from 2021 to 2030!

Video 8.1.2. NASA. (2019). Draining Earth’s oceans, revealing the two-thirds of Earth’s surface we don’t get to see. [Online video]. Retrieved May 13, 2021 from: https://youtu.be/-uOwv_Krqk8

  • Animation using satellite imagery showing the features of a water-less sea floor.

Figure 8.1.1. Taylor, G. (2008). Diatoms through the microscope [Photograph]. Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.

Video 8.1.3. NASA. (2012). The ocean: A driving force for weather and climate. [Online Video]. Retrieved May 3, 2022 from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6vgvTeuoDWY&ab_channel=NASAGoddard

  • Using satellite data, this animation highlights key processes in the ocean system that impact every other Earth system.

Figure 8.1.2. Kieffer, M. Bleached Staghorn coral. [Photograph]. Public domain, via Wikimedia Commons.

  • Bleached corals loose all the algae that lives inside their tissue. Acid ocean water and changes in ocean temperature are thought to cause this disease.

Video 8.1.4. UNESCO. (2020). Ocean literacy principle #7. [Online Video]. Retrieved May 11, 2022, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y0XgfVyZ9zw&feature=emb_imp_woyt&ab_channel=UNESCO

  • Ocean Literacy is defined as ‘the understanding of human influence on the Ocean and the Ocean’s influence on people’. In the context of the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development 2021 – 2030 (Ocean Decade), Ocean Literacy is expected to play a key role to transform ocean knowledge to action.


Video 8.2.1. Verduin, J. (2019). How do ocean currents work? TED Ed animation. Online video, directed by Cabong Studios. https://ed.ted.com/lessons/how-do-ocean-currents-work-jennifer-verduin. CC BY–NC–ND 4.0

  •  Jennifer Verduin dives into the science of ocean currents with this engaging and educational animaationn.

Video 8.2.2. Shirah, Greg (2011) Perpetual Ocean. Retrieved May 13, 2021 from https://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/3827

  • This visualization shows ocean surface currents around the world during the period from June 2005 through December 2007. The visualization does not include a narration or annotations; the goal was to use ocean flow data to create a simple, visceral experience.

Figure 8.2.1 Wikicommons (2009) Thermohaline Circulation. Retrieved May 13, 2021 from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Thermohaline_circulation.png

  • Map showing global thermohaline circulation.

Video 8.2.3. NASA. (2013). The Thermohaline circulation [Video] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1uuqvu–6Yg&t=51s&ab_channel=NASAVideo

  • This animation first depicts thermohaline surface flows over surface density, and illustrates the sinking of water in the dense ocean near Iceland and Greenland. The surface of the ocean then fades away and the animation pulls back to show the global thermohaline circulation.


Figure  8.3.1 Earle, S (n.d.) Retrieved May 8, 2021 from https://opentextbc.ca/physicalgeology2ed/wp-content/uploads/sites/298/2019/08/orbital-motion-of-a-parcel-of-water-1.png

  • The orbital motion of a parcel of water (black dot) as a wave moves across the surface.

Figure  8.3.2 Earle, S. (n.d.) Retrieved May 12, 2021 from https://opentextbc.ca/physicalgeology2ed/wp-content/uploads/sites/298/2019/08/The-effect-of-waves-approaching-a-sandy-shore-1.png

  • Image showing how orbits flatten as waves approach shore.

Figure  8.3.3 Earle, S. (n.d.) Retrieved May 12, 2021 from https://opentextbc.ca/physicalgeology2ed/wp-content/uploads/sites/298/2019/08/longshore-current-by-waves-approaching-the-shore-1.png

  • Image showing formation of longshore current

Figure  8.3.4 Earle, S (n.d.) Retrieved May 12, 2021 from https://opentextbc.ca/physicalgeology2ed/wp-content/uploads/sites/298/2019/08/swash-and-backwash-1.png

  • Image showing movement of particles on a beach as a result of swash and backwash

Figure  8.3.5 Earle, S. (n.d.) Retrieved May 12, 2021 from http://opentextbc.ca/geology/wp-content/uploads/sites/110/2015/08/rip-currents-on-a-beach-with-strong-surf.png

  • Image showing formation of rip currents

Figure  8.3.6 National Weather Service (n.d.) Rip Currents. Retrieved May 13, 2021 from https://www.nps.gov/calo/learn/news/images/RC-Break-the-Grip-of-the-Rip1.jpg

  • Graphic showing how to safely escape a rip current.

Video 8.3.1. NOAA. (2013). Hurricane Storm Surge Retrieved May 13, 2021 from https://youtu.be/pvY0KIdmQdM

  • Storm surge is water from the ocean that is pushed toward the shore by the force of the winds swirling around the hurricane. It is the greatest threat to life during a hurricane.  Transcript.

Video 8.3.2. NCAR. (2017). Storm Surge Visualization.  Retrieved May 13, 2021 from https://youtu.be/q6W_20bwqWo

  • Visualization from a storm surge forecast from Hurricane Irma in 2017. The simulation demonstrates how quickly storm surge flooding can occur, coastal inundation in less than 12 seconds.

Video 8.3.3. VOA Learning English. (2012). The Terror of a Tsunami. Retrieved May 13, 2021 from https://youtu.be/eenxXImtgm4

  • Video showing destruction from a tsunami


Figure  8.4.1 NASA. (June 22, 2011) Topography of the Atlantic Ocean Sea Floor.

  • Image showing the relative height of the Atlantic Ocean sea floor. Colors indicate different heights, with a high ridge found in the middle of the ocean, forming the Mid-Oceanic Ridge

Figure  8.4.2 Earle, S. (n.d.) Generalized Topography6 of the Pacific Ocean Sea Floor.  Retrieved May 25, 2021 from https://opentextbc.ca/geology/wp-content/uploads/sites/110/2015/08/generalized-topography-of-the-Pacific-Ocean-sea-floor.png

  • Image showing general features of the seafloor between Japan and British Columbia. The highest points are the Emperor Seamounts in the middle, and the lowest point is the trench of the coast of Japan.

Figure  8.4.3. Earle, S. (n.d.). Coastal Straightening.  Retrieved May 25, 2021 from

  • An image of a coastline showing the process of headlands being cut back and the flanking beaches being widened.

Figure  8.4.4 Wikicommons (2014) Basalt sea stack.  Retrieved May 25, 2021 from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Commons:Featured_picture_candidates/File:Reynisfjara,_Su%C3%B0urland,_Islandia,_2014-08-17,_DD_164.JPG#/media/File:Reynisfjara,_Su%C3%B0urland,_Islandia,_2014-08-17,_DD_164.JPG

  • Basalt sea stack in a black lava beach under the mountain Reynisfjall near the village Vík í Mýrdal, southern Iceland. The three basalt see stacks in the background are the famous Reynisdrangar.

Figure  8.4.5. Hillebrand, S. (2006). Akun Island basalt sea cave.  Retrieved May 25, 2021 from https://digitalmedia.fws.gov/digital/collection/natdiglib/id/4961

  • Decorative image showing a basalt outcrop with a hollowed out sea cave and arches underneath.

Figure  8.4.6. Wikicommons. (2012). Beringian Margin canyons.  Retrieved May 25, 2021 from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Beringian_Margin_canyons.png

  • Screen capture from NASA WorldWind software of margin of the Bering Sea with the larger submarine canyons highlighted

Figure 8.4.7 Earle, S. (n.d.) Winter and Summer Beach Deposition.  Retrieved May 25, 2021 from

  • Image showing the difference between winter (rough weather) and summer (calm weather) beaches. Sand is stored offshore on the winter beach and on sure during summer.

Figure  8.4.8 US Fish and Wildlife Service (n.d.) Goose Spit at Comox on Vancouver Island.  Retrieved May 25, 2021 from https://opentextbc.ca/physicalgeologyearle/wp-content/uploads/sites/145/2016/03/comox-2.png

  • Image of a spit forming due to longshore currents.

Figure  8.4.9 Chiou, L. (2016) Barrier Islands of South Shore Long Island.  Retrieved May 25, 2021 from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e0/LI_Barrier_Islands-1.jpg/366px-LI_Barrier_Islands-1.jpg

  • Aerial image of a barrier island.


Figure  8.5.1. NASA. (2019). Satellite Sea-level observations.  Retrieved May 13, 2021 from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/NASA-Satellite-sea-level-rise-observations.jpg

  • Graphic showing rate of change of sea level over the past 25 years.

Video 8.5.1. Willis, J. (2015, Sep 2) Watching Rising Seas from Space. Retrieved June 1, 2021 from https://youtu.be/z2UKvrU5rOk

  • Video showing Oceanographer Josh Willis from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory narrates this video about the causes of sea level rise and how sea level has changed over the last two decades as observed by the Jason series of satellite missions.

Video 8.5.2. NASA. (2020). Rising Tides: Understanding sea level rise. Retrieved May 25, 2021 from https://climate.nasa.gov/climate_resources/199/rising-tides-understanding-sea-level-rise/

  • Video showing the causes for sea level rise.

Video 8.5.3. NASA. (2020). Impacts of Sea Level Rise on Coastal Virginia.  Retrieved May 13, 2021 from https://youtu.be/8Pn4rQZ0rHQ

  • Video showing how sea level rise affects coastal Virginia

Figure 8.5.2 Wilson, M. (2021). Grand Canyon Sequence.

  • Image showing the uppermost rock types of the Grand Canyon and how they have changed composition due to sea-level changes over time.


Figure  8.6.1. Wikimedia Commons. (2007). Isle of Wight Centre for the Coastal Environment.  Retrieved June 1, 2021 from https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Seawallventnor.jpg

  • Image showing a seawall

Figure  8.6.2. National Park Service. (n.d.) Groins and Jetties. Retrieved June 1, 2021 from https://www.nps.gov/articles/groins-and-jetties.htm

  • Image showing groins and jetties on a coastline

Figure  8.6.3 Wilson, M. modified from GoogleEarth (2021) Breakwater off Long Beach, CA.

  • GoogleEarth image with the breakwaters labeled with arrows.

Figure  8.6.4. Wikimedia Commons. (2017). Retrieved June 1, 2021 from https://pixabay.com/photos/dredging-nourishment-beach-sand-2955269/

  • Image showing sand being brought to the beach for replenishment

Video 8.6.1. Ocean MOOC (2017) From Ocean Science to Ocean Sustainable Development. Retrieved May 13, 2021 from https://youtu.be/Bo3bJfJtKUU

  • Video showing how sustainable development can occur through the 5 P’s: peace, people prosperity partnership and planet

Instructor Resources

DP22_Ch08_Coastal Env and the ocean Text only

Alt Text for Draining Earth’s oceans, revealing the two-thirds of Earth’s surface we don’t get to see Video

Transcript for Hurricane Storm Surge Video


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Dynamic Planet: Exploring Geological Disasters and Environmental Change Copyright © 2021 by Charlene Estrada, Carolina Michele Londono, Merry Wilson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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