2.10 Attributions and References

Creative Commons Resources for Chapter Text

The following resources have been used for research, starting points, and inspiration for this chapter. Unless otherwise noted in Attributed References or Media Assets, materials have been significantly reworked by this text’s authors.

​Dastrup, R. Adam. (2020, Jun 1). “3.6 Theory of Plate Tectonics.” Physical Geography and Natural Disasters. https://slcc.pressbooks.pub/physicalgeography/chapter/3-6/ CC BY-NC-SA.

An Introduction to Geology by Chris Johnson, Matthew D. Affolter, Paul Inkenbrandt, Cam Mosher is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Geology by Lumen Learning is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Earth Science by Lumen Learning is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

(Natural Disasters and Human Impacts by R. Adam Dastrup, MA, GISP is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

(Physical Geology – 2nd Edition by Steven Earle is licensed under CC BY 4.0.

Introduction to Oceanography by Paul Webb is licensed under CC BY 4.0.

United States Geological Survey (USGS) is licensed under Public Domain.

Google Earth is available as Fair Use under Section 107 of the United States Copyright Act.

Chapter Text Attributions

[1] Richardson, Eliza. (2020). Contracting Earth v. Continental Drift v. Plate Tectonics. Earth 250: Plate Tectonics and People. https://www.e-education.psu.edu/earth520/content/l2_p2.html CC BY NC SA.

[2] Dastrup, R. Adam. (2020, Jun 1). “3.Planet Earth” Physical Geography and Natural Disasters. https://slcc.pressbooks.pub/physicalgeography/chapter/3-6/ CC BY-NC-SA.

[3] Earle, Steven. (2019, Sep 23). 10.1 Alfred Wegener: The Father of Plate Tectonics. Physical Geology – 2nd Edition. https://opentextbc.ca/physicalgeology2ed/chapter/10-1-alfred-wegener-the-father-of-plate-tectonics/ CC BY

[4] Wegener, Alfred. The Origin of Continents and Oceans (Fourth and Revised German Ed.). Trans. by John Biram. (1966). Dover Publishers, Inc.: New York, New York.

[5] Conniff, R. (2012, Jun). When Continental Drift Was Considered Pseudoscience. Smithsonian Magazine. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/when-continental-drift-was-considered-pseudoscience-90353214/

[6] Bressan, David. (2017, Jan 6). Alfred Wegener’s Lost Cause For His Continental Drift Theory.” Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/davidbressan/2017/01/06/alfred-wegeners-lost-cause-for-his-continental-drift-theory/?sh=18acad721149

[7] Crust. (2015, May 29). National Geographic. https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/crust/

[8] Mantle. (2015, Aug 11). National Geographic. https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/mantle/?utm_source=BibblioRCM_Row

[9] Grant, Ray. (n.d.). Arizona Rocks 8 Ultramafic rocks, peridotite. Pinal Geology Museum. https://www.pinalgeologymuseum.org/index.php/learn-play/arizona-rocks/232-arizona-rocks-8-ultramafic-rocks-peridotite

[10] Core. (2015, Aug 17). National Geographic. https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/core/

[11] Fecht, S. (2020, Jul 29). 8 Surprising Facts About Marie Tharp, Mapmaker Extraordinaire. New from the Columbia Climate School. https://news.climate.columbia.edu/2020/07/29/surprising-facts-marie-tharp/

[12] Tharp, Marie. (1999, Apr 1). Connect the Dots: Mapping the Seafloor and Discovering the Mid-ocean Ridge. Chapter 2 in Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of ColumbiaTwelve Perspectives on the First Fifty Years 1949-1999 , Laurence Lippsett (Ed.). https://www.whoi.edu/news-insights/content/marie-tharp/

[13] Earth Science by Lumen Learning is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

[14] An Introduction to Geology by Chris Johnson, Matthew D. Affolter, Paul Inkenbrandt, Cam Mosher is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

[15]  Blay, Chuck, and Siemers. (2004, Feb 4). Robert. Kauai‘’s Geologic History: A Simplified Guide, Updated Edition. Self-published updated Edition after TEOK Investigations original edition.

[16] San Francisco volcanic field, Arizona. (2010). Arizona Geological Survey. https://azgs.arizona.edu/photo/san-francisco-volcanic-field-arizona


Media Assets

Fig 2.1 World map illustration from 250 million years ago to present.


Dutton Institute. (Sep 6, 2016) EARTH250 Contracting Earth Hypothesis. [Online Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Yn2KvRVr28

GeoHub Liverpool. (May 17, 2019). Plate Tectonics – isostasy. [Online Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t2CFSuvm1A4

Fig. 2.1.1 A photo of Alfred Wegener

Aus EarthEd. (Apr 15 2020). Continental Drift. [Online Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ttg5fZk3ddE

Fig. 2.1.2. Map of the supercontinent Pangaea with fossil evidence for continental drift across now-separate continents.

Fig. 2.1.3. Comparison of layers of stacked books and layers of sedimentary rocks.

Fig. 2.1.4. World map showing the extent of the Karoo ice age over Pangaea.

Fig. 2.1.5. Last known photograph of Alfred Wegener before his death.


Fig 2.2.1. Simplified Periodic Table of Elements.

Fig 2.2.2. The structure of Earth and its interior, drawn to scale.

Khan Academy. (Feb 2, 2011). Structure of the Earth. [Online Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4AxZ-6MOznY

Facts Beast. (Feb 17, 2018). How deep is Earths core. [Online Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=60TSVhYj7Zg

Fig. 2.2.3. Comparison of continental vs. oceanic crust.

Fig. 2.2.4. Earth cut in one half.

Fig 2.2.5. Pie slice of the Earth’s interior.

Fig 2.2.6. Backyard Geology mantle xenolith.

Fig. 2.2.7. Diagram of upper mantle, transition zone, and lower mantle.

Fig. 2.2.8. Atomic structure of perovskite.

Brian Ongaga. (Feb 20, 2019). The Earth’s Magnetic Fields Down To Earth Da Vinci Kids TV YouTube. [Online Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VFzg9XH0dv8

Fig. 2.2.9. Cross-section of the Earth with surface also showing.


Fig. 2.3.1. Photograph of Marie Tharp.

Dinoxorg. (Feb 7, 2013). The First Ocean Floor Maps. [Online Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=62D1NrSqVfI

Fig. 2.3.2. The core of the Earth as a magnet.

Fig. 2.3.3. Magnetic reversals on the Earth over the past 169 Ma.

  • Anomie, modified by Charlene Estrada. (2021, Apr 2). “Geomagnetic polarity 0-169 Ma.” [Online Image]. Public Domain.

Fig. 2.3.4. Animation of an oceanic spreading center.

Fig. 2.3.5. Spreading center at Mid-Ocean Ridge with recorded magnetic reversals.

Fig. 2.3.6. Image of J. Tuzo Wilson.

Fig. 2.3.7. Our modern world map divided into the major lithospheric plates.

Khan Academy. (Feb 2, 2011). Plate tectonics: Difference between crust and lithosphere | Cosmology & Astronomy | Khan Academy. [Online Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f2BWsPVN7c4

Fig. 2.3.8. Convection cells within Earth’s mantle.

Aus EarthEd. (Jun 17, 2020). Convection. [Online Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YHr7ESa3_VA


Fig. 2.4.1. Cross-section of lithosphere and asthenosphere showing three main plate boundaries.

Fig. 2.4.2. Buzz Aldrin working on the moon.

Fig. 2.4.3. Block diagram of oceanic-continental convergent boundary.

EarthScience WesternAustralia. (Jul 27, 2020). Convergence (oceanic and continental crust). [Online Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F9uGSuyMclc

Fig 2.4.4. Block diagram of oceanic-oceanic convergent boundary.

Fig. 2.4.5. Age of oceanic lithosphere.

EarthScience WesternAustralia. (Jul 27, 2020). Convergence (oceanic crust). [Online Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3p1N3JzJzFQ

Fig. 2.4.6. Block diagram of continental-continental convergent boundary.

AGU. (Sep 15, 2020). Animation: Continents collide and break apart over time. [Online Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QhldiOaFqpE&t=39s

EarthScience WesternAustralia. (Jul 27, 2020). Convergence (continental crust). [Online Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CdVy6ZQ25WU


Fig. 2.5.1. Block diagram of divergent boundary on continental crust.

Fig. 2.5.2. East African rift valley.

EarthScience WesternAustralia. (Jul 27, 2020). Divergence. [Online Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pf5KPXP4exc

Fig. 2.5.3. Block diagram of divergent boundary on oceanic crust.

NOC news. (Jun 20, 2016). Hydrothermal vent fields 1080p. [Online Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R1koFEKfmLw

2.5.4. Age of oceanic lithosphere.


Fig. 2.6.1. Block diagram of transform boundary.

Fig. 2.6.2. Block diagram of right-lateral fault.

Fig. 2.6.3. Block diagram of left-lateral fault.

Fig. 2.6.4. Piqiang fault in China.

Fig. 2.6.5. Piqiang fault with red line.

Fig. 2.6.6. Piqiang fault with red line and blue circle.

Fig. 2.6.7. Piqiang fault with directional arrows.

Fig. 2.6.8. Annotated Piqiang fault.


2.7.1. Map of Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount chain.

Storm. (Nov 5, 2010). Hawaii’s Hotspot. [Online Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bYv6V5EJAKc&feature=emb_imp_woyt

2.7.2. Map of San Francisco volcanic field of Northern Arizona.


Fig. 2.8.1. Map of the Pacific Ring of Fire.

Fig. 2.8.2. Subduction zone at convergent boundary demonstrating hazards.

Fig. 2.8.3. Mount Everest and the Himalayan mountain range.

  • shrimpo1967 (remix by Papa Lima Whiskey). (2012, Feb 3). “Mount_Everest_as_seen_from_Drukair2_PLW_edit.” [Online Image]. Wikimedia Commons. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mount_Everest#/media/File:Mount_Everest_as_seen_from_Drukair2_PLW_edit.jpg (CC BY-SA).

Fig. 2.8.4. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge between North America, South America, Eurasia, and Africa.

Fig. 2.8.5. Animation of an oceanic spreading center.

USGS. (Dec 31, 2014). Elastic Rebound. [Video File]. https://www.usgs.gov/media/videos/elastic-rebound


Fig. 2.9.1. Supercontinent of Pangaea with modern continental borders.

Christopher Scotese. (May 31, 2019). Scotese Plate Tectonics Paleogeography & Ice ages. [Online Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UevnAq1MTVA&feature=emb_imp_woyt

Fig. 2.9.2. Approximation of world map in 250 million years.

Instructor Resources and References

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Dynamic Planet: Exploring Geological Disasters and Environmental Change by Charlene Estrada, Carolina Michele Londono, Merry Wilson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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