3.8 Attributions and References

Creative Commons Resources for Chapter Text

The following resources have been used for research, starting points, and inspiration for this chapter and are available to all under Fair Use or Creative Commons Licensing. Unless otherwise noted in Attributed References or Media Assets, materials have been significantly reworked by this text’s authors.

​Dastrup, R. Adam. (2020, Jun 1). Physical Geography and Natural Disasters. https://slcc.pressbooks.pub/physicalgeography/CC BY-NC-SA.

An Introduction to Geology by Chris Johnson, Matthew D. Affolter, Paul Inkenbrandt, Cam Mosher is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Geology by Lumen Learning is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Earth Science by Lumen Learning is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Natural Disasters and Human Impacts by R. Adam Dastrup, MA, GISP is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

Physical Geology – 2nd Edition by Steven Earle is licensed under CC BY 4.0.

Introduction to Oceanography by Paul Webb is licensed under CC BY 4.0.

United States Geological Survey (USGS) is licensed under Public Domain.

Google Earth is available as Fair Use under Section 107 of the United States Copyright Act.

Chapter Text Attributions

Information for all minerals were sourced from the following databases:

Hudson Institute of Mineralogy. (2021). Mindat.org. https://www.mindat.org/

Barthelmy, D. (2014). Mineralogy Database. Webmineral. http://webmineral.com/

University of Arizona Mineralogy. (2021). RRUFF. https://rruff.info/

[1] Blake, William. (1950). Auguries of Innocence. Poetry Foundation. https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/43650/auguries-of-innocence

[2] Dastrup, R. Adam. (2020, Jun 1). “3.Planet Earth” Physical Geography and Natural Disasters. https://slcc.pressbooks.pub/physicalgeography/chapter/3-6/ CC BY-NC-SA.

[3] First People of America and Canada – Turtle Island. (n.d.). Apache Tear Drop. https://www.firstpeople.us/FP-Html-Legends/Apache_Tear_Drop-Apache.html

Media Assets

All images, videos, animations, and H5P activities within this chapter are licensed under Creative Commons, or in rare circumstances, Fair Use.

EarthScience WesternAustralia. (Aug 8, 2014). Rocks and minerals. [Online Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WYtF-ZdTr7s

3.1

Fig. 3.1.1. Cocoparisienne. (n.d.). “rock-crystal-397955_1280.” [Online Image]. Pixabay. https://pixabay.com/photos/rock-crystal-crystal-397955/ CC-0 Public Domain.

  • Quartz crystals.

Fig. 3.1.2. Lumen Learning. (n.d.). “States of Matter.” [Online Image]. Chemistry for Majors: Atoms First. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/chemistryatomsfirst/chapter/phases-and-classification-of-matter/ CC BY.

  • State of matter (solid, liquid, and gas).

Fig. 3.1.3. OpenClipArt-Vectors (n.d.). “crystal-structure-148812_640.” [Online Image]. Pixabay. https://pixabay.com/vectors/crystal-structure-nacl-chemical-148812/ CC-0 Public Domain.

  • Crystal structure of halite.

Fig. 3.1.4. Kaspar Kallip. (2015, Nov 30). “Freezed XRD.” [Online Image]. Wikimedia Commons. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray_crystallography#/media/File:Freezed_XRD.jpg CC BY-SA 4.0.

  • Frozen X-ray diffractometer in action.

Video 3.1.1 FuseSchool – Global Education. (May 5, 2020). What Is An Element, Mixture And Compound? | Properties of Matter | Chemistry | FuseSchool. [Online Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DZ6Ap8Zyb9w.

Fig. 3.1.5. Lumen Learning. (n.d.). “The Periodic Table of Elements.” [Online Image]. Geology. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/geo/chapter/reading-the-building-blocks-of-matter/ CC BY.

  • Periodic Table of Elements.

Fig. 3.1.6. Moussa Direct Ltd. (2008, Jul 24). “Erbenochile eye.” [Online Image]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Erbenochile_eye.JPG CC BY-SA 3,0.

  • Trilobite eyes composed of carbon are an example of a substance that is not a mineral.

Fig. 3.1.7. MaterialScientist. (2009, Apr 24). “HPHTdiamonds2.” [Online Image]. Wikimedia Commons. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synthetic_diamond#/media/File:HPHTdiamonds2.JPG Public Domain.

  • Lab-grown diamonds.

3.2

Fig. 3.2.1. LisaRedfern. (n.d.) “Crystal Cluster Arkansas.” [Online Image]. Pixabay. https://pixabay.com/photos/crystal-cluster-arkansas-1582014/ CC-0.

  • Quartz crystal cluster.

Video 3.2.1. Awad, A. (2017, Aug 18). Matter & minerals: physical properties. [Online Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=No9VpiQGzME

Fig. 3.2.2. James St. John. (2013, Feb 9). “Malachite and Azurite.” [Online Image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/jsjgeology/8458721615/in/album-72157632725702927/ CC BY 2.0.

  • Malachite and azurite.

Fig. 3.2.3. Mauro Cateb. (2011, Jan 3). “Pebbles of the Quartz Group.” [Online Image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/mauroescritor/6390595011/in/photostream/ CC BY 2.0

  • Colors of quartz

Fig. 3.2.4. KarlaPanchuk. (2016, Jan 7). “Hematite Streak Plate.” [Online Image]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hematite_streak_plate.jpg CC BY-SA 4.0.

  • Hematite streak

Fig. 3.2.5. Ra’ike. (2010, Jun 16). “Streak plate with Pyrite and Rhodochrosite.” [Online Image]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Streak_plate_with_Pyrite_and_Rhodochrosite.jpg CC BY SA 3.0.

  • Pyrite and rhodochrosite streak

Fig. 3.2.6. EEAR. (n.d.). “Diamond Shiny Baby.” [Online Image]. Pixabay. https://pixabay.com/illustrations/diamond-shiny-baby-wealth-wealthy-807979/ CC 0 Public Domain.

  • Adamantine diamond

Fig. 3.2.7. Stux. (n.d.). “pure-quartz-1151426_640.” [Online Image]. Pixabay. https://pixabay.com/photos/pure-quartz-rock-crystal-mineral-1151426/ CC0 Public Domain.

  • Vitreous quartz

Fig. 3.2.8. Ra’ike. (2006, Dec 27). “Selenite Gips Marienglas.” [Online Image]. Wikimedia Commons. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Selenite_Gips_Marienglas.jpg CC0 Public Domain.

  • Silky selenite

Fig. 3.2.9. James St. John. (2012, Nov 17). “Graphite (Sri Lanka) 2.” [Online Image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/47445767@N05/17364736943 CC BY 2.0.

  • Greasy graphite.

Fig. 3.2.10. Rob Lavinsky. (2010, May 28). “Mimetite-uri-04d.” [Online Image]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=10476569 CC BY-SA 3.0.

  • Waxy mimetite

Fig. 3.2.11. James St. John. (2017, Feb 5). “Kaolinite (Cretaceous; Twiggs County, Georgia, USA).” [Online Image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/47445767@N05/32350111650 CC BY 2.0.

  • Dull kaolinite

Fig. 3.2.12. RadiolArt. (n.d.). “Pyrite Crystal Nature.” [Online Image]. Pixabay. https://pixabay.com/photos/pyrite-crystal-nature-173716/ CC0 Public Domain.

  • Metallic pyrite

Fig. 3.2.13. Ren_mch. (n.d.). “Mineral Quartz Crystal.” [Online Image]. Pixabay. https://pixabay.com/photos/mineral-quartz-crystal-gem-stone-5248231/ CC0 Public Domain.

  • Prismatic quartz

Fig. 3.2.14. Cobalt123. (2013, Feb 8). “Rutile Crystals.” [Online Image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/66606673@N00/8471241610 CC BY-SA-NC 3.0.

  • Acicular rutile

Fig. 3.2.15. Jeff-o-matic. (2007, Dec 23). “Muscovite 1a.” [Online Image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/18903185@N07/2166409762 CC BY-NC 2.0.

  • Micaceous muscovite

Fig. 3.2.16. Cobalt123. (2019, Feb 9). “Hemimorphite, China.” [Online Image]. Flickr.  https://www.flickr.com/photos/66606673@N00/47010835832 CC BY-NC-SA 3.0.

  • Botryoidal hemimorphite

Fig. 3.2.17. James St. John. (2017, Feb 3). “Zircon.” [Online Image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/47445767@N05/32677416715 CC BY 2.0.

  • Equant zircons

Fig. 3.2.18. Didier Descouens. (2011, Feb 27). “Diopside Aoste.” [Online Image]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=14047390 CC BY-SA 3.0

  • Bladed diopside

Fig. 3.2.19. James St. John. (2016, Apr 4). “Cobaltite (Frontier Mine, Ontario, Canada) 2.” [Online Image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/47445767@N05/26233803605 CC BY 2.0.

  • Massive cobaltite

Video 3.2.2. Cash, J. (Aug 6, 2020). Demonstrations of mineral cleavage. [Online Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iycXcQnf75s

Fig. 3.2.20. B. Domangue. (2021, Feb 16). “Mica-Silicate Mineral.” [Online Image]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mica_-_Silicate_Mineral.jpg CC BY-SA 4.0.

  • Muscovite with basal cleavage

Fig. 3.2.21. Steven Earle. (n.d.). “K-feldspar cleavage.” [Online Image]. Physical Geology – 2nd Edition. https://opentextbc.ca/physicalgeology2ed/chapter/2-6-mineral-properties/ CC BY.

  • Orthoclase with 2-directional 90 degree cleavage

Fig. 3.2.22. USGS. (2005, Jan 7). “Plagioclase Feldspar USGOV.” [Online Image]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PlagioclaseFeldsparUSGOV.jpg Public Domain.

  • Albite with 2-directional non-perpendicular cleavage

Fig. 3.2.23. Jamain. (2017, Aug 4). “1456px-Halite_J1a.” [Online Image]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Halite_J1a.jpg CC BY-SA 4.0.

  • Halite with cubic cleavage

Fig. 3.2.24. James St. John. (2017, Jan 7). “Rhombohedral cleavage fragments of calcite.” [Online Image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/47445767@N05/32052216331/ CC BY 2.0.

  • Calcite with rhombohedral cleavage

Fig. 3.2.25. Ra’ike. (2007, Oct 6). “Fluorite colorless octahedron.” [Online Image]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Fluorite-colorless-octahedron.jpg CC BY-SA 3.0.

  • Fluorite with octahedral cleavage

Fig. 3.2.26. James St. John. (2021, Feb 1). “Quartz 23.” [Online Image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/47445767@N05/50903626441/ CC BY 2.0.

  • Conchoidal fracture in quartz

Fig. 3.2.27. National Park Service. (n.d.). “Mohs.” [Online Image]. Gem Society. https://www.gemsociety.org/article/select-gems-ordered-mohs-hardness/ Public Domain.

  • Mohs Hardness Scale of Minerals

Fig. 3.2.28. Shaun Wood. (2008, Jun 28). “Lodestone.” [Online Image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/31191972@N04/3205036688 CC BY-NC-SA 2.0.

  • Magnetic magnetite

Fig. 3.2.29. Cran Cowan. (2011, May 23). “Fluorescent Mineral Group #12 – UV.” [Online Image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/28617364@N04/5748883127/in/photostream/ CC BY-NC-SA 2.0.

  • Bright, neon fluorescent minerals

Fig. 3.2.30. Furrfu. (2010, Mar 6). “3310.calcite_(Iceland_Spar)_birefringence.” [Online Image]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:3310.calcite_(Iceland_Spar)_birefringence.jpg Public Domain.

  • Optical calcite showing double refraction

Fig. 3.2.31. Piotr Sosnowski. (2008, Sep 3). “Ulexyt z boku.” [Online Image]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ulexyt_z_boku.jpg CC BY-SA 4.0.

  • Polished ulexite/ TV Stone

3.3

Video 3.3.1. Wendy Van Norden. (Jul 7, 2012). Identifying Common Minerals.mp4. [Online Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G2zFLCZKTQk

Fig. 3.3.1. scrampunk. (2018, Jun 7). “Gold Nugget.” [Online Model]. Sketchfab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/gold-nugget-free-download-d2aebf1ef63245a4a4684b25a68d6d2b CC BY.

  • Gold nugget

Fig. 3.3.2. Mike Beauregard. (2016, May 11). “metallic bonsai_ silver, copper, crystal gem.” [Online Image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/31856336@N03/44730573602 CC BY 2.0.

  • Silver

Fig. 3.3.3. James St. John. (2010, Sep 15).  “Large native copper amygdule (Mesoproterozoic, 1.05-1.06 Ga; Ahmeek Mine, Ahmeek, Upper Peninsula of Michigan, USA) 1.” [Online Image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/47445767@N05/17307955385 CC BY 2.0.

  • Copper

Fig. 3.3.4. joae12. (2017, Aug 3). “Diamond.” [Online Model]. Sketchfab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/diamond-ba5888a67cd444f4b1656a97909c479c CC BY.

  • Polished and cut diamond

Fig. 3.3.5. James St. John. (2015, May 23). “Graphite.” [Online Image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/47445767@N05/17981816962 CC BY 2.0.

  • Graphite

Fig. 3.3.6. rocksandminerals. “Sulfur 6-5.” [Online Model]. Sketchfab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/sulfur-6-5-f2399e4c123548cfb188c28dd72f0622 CC BY.

  • Sulfur

Fig. 3.3.7. geolab.unilasalle. (2019, Dec 21). Quartz Crystals. [Online Model]. Sketchfab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/quartz-crystals-8a6c7eaa97ab4df38a49899f14a4a9df CC BY-NC-SA.

  • Cluster of quartz

Fig. 3.3.8. John Bosworth. “Orthoclase. Registration no. M 44707.” [Online Image]. Museum Victoria Collections. https://collections.museumsvictoria.com.au/specimens/47439 CC BY 4.0.

  • Orthoclase

Fig. 3.3.9. James St. John. (2012, May 7). “Moonstone (iridescent peristerite-oligoclase feldspar) (Chupa Pegmatite Field, Mesoproterozoic, 1.75 to 2.10 Ga; at or near Chupa Bay, Karelia, Russia) 2.” [Online Image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/47445767@N05/14936848270 CC BY 2.0.

  • Plagioclase Moonstone

Fig. 3.3.10. rocksandminerals. (2020, Apr 20). “Muscovite 04-20-2020.” [Online Model]. Sketchfab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/muscovite-04-20-2020-8588fb59d0f2492cb8dc3fd7e423a88f CC BY.

  • Muscovite

Fig. 3.3.11. rocksandminerals. (2020, Jul 6). “Biotite #3094 07-06-2020.” [Online Model]. Sketchfab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/biotite-3094-07-06-2020-1e06947d652846ec9e65da8faadde47a CC BY.

  • Biotite

Fig. 3.3.12. James St. John. “Kaolinite (Cretaceous; Twiggs County, Georgia, USA).” [Online Image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/47445767@N05/32350111650 CC BY 2.0.

  • Kaolinite

Fig. 3.3.13. James St. John. (2006, May 4). “Talc schist 2.” [Online Image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/47445767@N05/16921632302 CC BY 2.0.

  • Talc

Fig. 3.3.14. Lapworth Museum of Geology. (2019, Aug 13). “Almandine BIRUG 1092.” [Online Model]. Sketchfab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/almandine-birug-1092-7744e62774f0457da9d3ac5f281d2077 CC BY-NC.

  • Almandine Garnets

Fig. 3.3.15. Robert Lavinsky. (2016, Apr 11). “File:Magnesio-hornblende (cropped).png” [Online Image]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=74129420 CC BY-SA 3.0

  • Hornblende

Fig. 3.3.16. Robert M. Lavinsky. (2010, May 27). “Enstatite-pas-146a.” [Online Image]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Enstatite-pas-146a.jpg CC BY-SA 3.0.

  • Enstatite

Fig. 3.3.17. UQ School of Earth and Environmental Science. (2020, Oct 27). “Olivine.” [Online Model]. Sketchfab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/olivine-e7fcbc0c23704f91ace1653c7275ae4b CC BY.

  • Olivine

Fig. 3.3.18. Dr. Parvinder Sethi. (2020, Oct 16). “Calcite / RU Geology / by Grace Psenicska.” [Online Model]. Sketchfab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/calcite-ru-geology-by-grace-psenicska-77c2e06d0bc84b6891f1d7dfaa22f81a CC BY.

  • Calcite

Fig. 3.3.19. Didier Descouens. (2009, Dec 31). “File:Dolomite Luzenac.jpg.” [Online Image]. Wikimedia Commons.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dolomite_(mineral)#/media/File:Dolomite_Luzenac.jpg CC BY-SA 4.0.

  • Dolomite

Fig. 3.3.20. Malopolska`s Virtual Museums. (2016, Mar 1). “‘Kidney-shaped’ malachite.” [Online Model]. Sketchfab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/kidney-shaped-malachite-caab9eb5cc3245bebcedfe9c8a792f5c CC0 Public Domain.

  • Malachite

Fig. 3.3.21. Eric Hunt. (2006, Oct 21). “File:Azurite from China.jpg.” [Online Image]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Azurite_from_China.jpg CC BY-SA 2.5.

  • Azurite

Fig. 3.3.22. EDUROCK – EDUCATIONAL VIRTUAL ROCK COLLECTION. (2019, Sep 9). “Gypsum.” [Online Model]. Sketchfab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/gypsum-de785119fe014b5e998a17e0fdcf6850 CC BY.

  • Gypsum

Fig. 3.3.23. Holly Leighanne. (2013, May 22). “Anhydrite.” [Online Image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/29981072@N00/9874232443 CC BY 2.0.

  • Anhydrite

Fig. 3.3.24. Rob Lavinsky. (2010, Apr 26). “File:Magnetite-118736.jpg.” [Online Image]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Magnetite-118736.jpg CC-BY-SA-3.0

  • Magnetite

Fig. 3.3.25. rockdoc. (2020, Aug 11). “hematite.” [Online Model]. Sketchfab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/hematite-2b59aba7b1a64f30908b720c06ab070d CC BY.

  • Hematite

Fig. 3.3.26. Orbital Joe. (2005, Aug 30). “Corundum (RUBY).” [Online Image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/orbitaljoe/38724606/in/photolist-4qttC-4qttD-9bHu8-jitPH9-2kTWrCU-58Nim-6kHym-b7oKR-bam98k-b7oKQ-6kHyh-85Fg3p-6kHyi-6kHyk-2hSDepN-2isg3rA-4zgqM-2irHWR9-4zgqL-4zgqN-c6E9Jw-2hSFKZK-2kRvNo8-2hSDssB-2irHWTU-2hSH3EC-2ePAv-p1bJdf-er7wS3-eqbdQn-2kqb6M4-79UqQM-2irHWK7-eqbfSR-2jD6izA-er7yqo-Jjax8q-DqYiP-TPLCnq-c6E6Uf-2isjP18-2isg44H-2isiGhE-4svhBW-2isjNmc-4yvaWc-2enev1E-6nDfDP-2hSFLBG-2kRrEmF CC BY-NC-ND.

  • Corundum

Fig. 3.3.27. rawdonfox. (2017, Feb 18). “Ice-cubes.” [Online Image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/34739556@N04/32852731931 CC BY 2.0.

  • Ice cubes

Fig. 3.3.28. Earth Sciences, University of Newcastle. (2018, Feb 1). “Pyrite.” [Online Model]. Sketchfab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/pyrite-0e605ac65952494ab6c2526bb90fa283 CC BY-NC.

  • Pyrite

Fig. 3.3.29. James St. John. (2011, Jan 30). “Galena (Missouri, USA).” [Online Image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/47445767@N05/18281224591 CC BY 2.0.

  • Galena

Fig. 3.3.30. rockdoc. (2020, Aug 11). “halite.” [Online Model]. Sketchfab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/halite-323cf8eb403d459e9d0359d68ab1cf1d CC BY-NC.

  • Rock Salt/Halite

Fig. 3.3.31. James St. John. (2017, May 6). “Fluorite (Denton Mine, near Cave-in-Rock, Illinois, USA) 2” [Online Image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/47445767@N05/34177670250 CC BY 2.0.

  • Fluorite

3.4

Fig. 3.4.1. Siyavula Education. (2012, Apr 25). “Rock Cycle.” [Online Image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/121935927@N06/13581730833 CC BY 2.0.

  • The Rock cycle

Fig. 3.4.2. NASA Earth Observatory. (2009, Jun 12). “Sarychev Peak Eruption, Kuril Islands.” NASA. [Online Image]. https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/38985/sarychev-peak-eruption-kuril-islands Public Domain.

  • Sarychev Peak Eruption

Fig. 3.4.3. Charlene Estrada. (Apr 17, 2021). “Sandstone Crossbedding.” [Online Image]. The Rock Cycle. https://open.maricopa.edu/hazards/chapter/3-5/img_1443/ CC BY 4.0.

  • Layers of cross-bedded sandstone.

Fig. 3.4.4. Jon Spencer. (2013). “Folds in pegmatic gneiss of Soldier Canyon.” [Online Image]. AZGS. https://azgs.arizona.edu/photo/folds-pegmatitic-gneiss-soldier-canyon CC BY 4.0.

  • Folded metamorphic gneiss.

3.5

Fig. 3.5.1. Karla Panchuk. (2018). “classification-simplified_revised.” [Online Image]. Physical Geology, First University of Saskatchewan Edition. https://openpress.usask.ca/physicalgeology/chapter/7-3-classification-of-igneous-rocks-2/ CC BY 4.0.

  • Classification of igneous rocks.

Fig. 3.5.2. James St. John. (2019, Sep 3). “Granite 2.” [Online Image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/jsjgeology/48674313252/in/album-72157651212529712/ CC BY 2.0.

  • Coarse-grained igneous rock texture.

Fig. 3.5.3. James St. John. (2019, Sep 3) “Basalt 2.” [Online Image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/jsjgeology/48674616636/ CC BY 2.0.

  • Fine-grained igneous rock texture.

Fig. 3.5.4. James St. John. (2014, Nov 22). “Porphyritic andesite (Kate Peak Formation, Middle Miocene; Lyon County, western Nevada, USA).” [Online Image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/jsjgeology/15661069958/in/album-72157651212529712/ CC BY 2.0.

  • Porphyritic igneous rock texture.

Fig. 3.5.5. James St. John. (2014, Aug 24). “Rhyodacite pumice (late August 1883 eruption of Krakatoa Volcano, Indonesia; collected at Takwa Beach, coastal Kenya, eastern Africa) 2.” [Online Image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/jsjgeology/15023091491/in/album-72157651212529712/ CC BY 2.0.

  • Vesicular igneous rock texture.

Fig. 3.5.6. Glassy igneous rock texture

Fig. 3.5.7. James St. John. (2015, Mar 11). “Volcanic breccia with jelly opal (Cenozoic; Mexico).” [Online Image]. Flickr. https://www.flickr.com/photos/47445767@N05/16788260245 CC BY 2.0.

  • Pyroclastic igneous rock texture.

Video 3.5.1. Wendy Van Norden. (Jun 28, 2012) Igneous Rocks. [Online Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=laVDypLGdbs

  • Lecture showcasing main processes producing igenous rocks.

Fig. 3.5.8. Sara Carena. (2020, Jun 6). “Komatiite, South Africa.” [Online Model]. SketchFab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/komatiite-south-africa-cd7cf872fd4745dca0ee908868ebc375 CC BY-NC.

  • Komatiite

Fig. 3.5.9. Sara Carena. (2020, May 8 “Peridotite xenoliths, USA.” [Online Model]. SketchFab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/peridotite-xenoliths-usa-1c49a6cb73a349f0a7da14fdd1a6e7ba CC BY-NC.

  • Peridotite

Fig. 3.5.10. Sara Carena. (2020, May 7). “Basalt, USA.” [Online Model]. SketchFab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/basalt-usa-f2b81c5a53c9427492875173e2fb5619 CC BY-NC.

  • Basalt

Fig. 3.5.11. Sara Carena. (2020, Jun 9). “Gabbro, Brazil.” [Online Model]. SketchFab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/gabbro-brazil-e004b43d7b3b4e8da8f3b79418a35134 CC BY-NC.

  • Gabbro

Fig. 3.5.12. Sara Carena. (2020, Jul 30). “Basaltic Andesite Spain.” [Online Model]. SketchFab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/basaltic-andesite-spain-4ac59e24353d41f8b631aa02c1b0ec1a CC BY-NC.

  • Andesite

Fig. 3.5.13. Sara Carena. (2020, Sep 18). “Diorite.” [Online Model]. SketchFab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/diorite-301bbc33e581435cbb71e09e33df5938 CC BY-NC.

  • Diorite

Fig. 3.5.14.  Dr. Parvinder Sethi. (2020, Sep 13). “Rhyolite / RU Geology / by Grace Psenicska.” [Online Model]. SketchFab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/rhyolite-ru-geology-by-grace-psenicska-a0b3c6df003a4e71859da28686abeea9 CC BY.

  • Rhyolite

Fig. 3.5.15. Sara Carena. (2020, Nov 18). “Granite, Kenya.” [Online Model]. SketchFab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/granite-kenya-8d39a566d3df4d7d97a565e4785c2271 CC BY-NC.

  • Granite

Fig. 3.5.16. Jonathan.davidson. (2018, Mar 1). “Obsidian.” [Online Model]. SketchFab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/obsidian-66b9a744a4ce436cb08b285c1555f0ef CC BY.

  • Obsidian

Fig. 3.5.17. Simon Eugster. (2006, Apr 14). “ApachenträneGegenlicht.” [Online Image]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Apachentr%C3%A4neGegenlicht.jpg CC BY SA.

  • Apache Tear

Fig. 3.5.18. Scoria

Fig. 3.5.19. Sara Carena. (2020, May 15). “Pumice.” [Online Model]. SketchFab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/pumice-5374302b2d204984accda59833e5a85b CC BY-NC.

  • Pumice

Video 3.5.2. Estrada, C. (2021). Igneous rock 8. [Online Video]. Retrieved May 19, 2022 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O4BoGgMku2A&ab_channel=CharleneEstrada

  • Video Description: The pumice depicted in the video is beige and filled with small holes. It is very low density, and when placed in a bowl of water, it floats.

Fig. 3.5.20. rocksandminerals. (2020, Apr 23). “Rhyolite tuff #10 04-23-2020.” [Online Model]. SketchFab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/rhyolite-tuff-10-04-23-2020-dc53b855efa5433987778b0c38c47432 CC BY.

  • Tuff

3.6

Fig. 3.6.1. Karla Panchuk. (2016). “lithification-1024×409.” [Online Image]. Physical Geology, First University of Saskatchewan Edition. https://openpress.usask.ca/physicalgeology/chapter/9-1-clastic-sedimentary-rocks-2/ CC BY 4.0.

  • Process of sedimentary rock lithification.

Fig. 3.6.2. Charlene Estrada. (2021, Apr 21). “Weathered sandstone cliffs at sunset.” [Online Image]. Sedimentary Rocks. https://open.maricopa.edu/app/uploads/sites/119/2021/01/A8C88EF2-64AA-4764-B010-5E4B595611C8.jpeg CC BY 4.0.

  • Sandstone cliff formation.

Fig. 3.6.3. Karla Panchuk. (2016). “Grain-size-chart.” [Online Image]. Physical Geology, First University of Saskatchewan Edition. https://openpress.usask.ca/physicalgeology/chapter/8-4-weathering-and-erosion-produce-sediments/ CC BY 4.0.

  • Classification of clast grain sizes.

Fig. 3.6.4. Steven Earle. (n.d.). “sediment-clasts.” [Online Image]. Physical Geology – 2nd Edition. https://opentextbc.ca/physicalgeology2ed/chapter/6-1-clastic-sedimentary-rocks/ CC BY 4.0.

  • Transportation of sediments by stream flow

Fig. 3.6.5. Reagan, M.K., Pearce, J.A., Petronotis, K., and the Expedition 352 Scientists. (2015). “02_F05.” [Online Image]. Expedition 352 methods. http://publications.iodp.org/proceedings/352/102/figures/02_F05.png CC BY 3.0.

  • Sorting and rounding of clasts.

Fig. 3.6.6. Sara Carena. (2021, Jan 22). “Conglomerate.” [Online Model]. SketchFab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/conglomerate-9c2b5e3b70a0410394e2c61e31851164 CC BY.

  • Conglomerate.

Fig. 3.6.7.  Sara Carena. (2020, May 5). “Tectonic breccia.” [Online Model]. SketchFab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/tectonic-breccia-caf9f8d8461445b6bc15ee17f1af94ba CC BY.

  • Breccia

Fig. 3.6.8. Sara Carena. (2020, May 15). “Sandstone, USA.” [Online Model]. SketchFab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/sandstone-usa-357ebf487b5a4c42850af5fcf95429c7 CC BY.

  • Sandstone

Fig. 3.6.9. Dr. Parvinder Sethi. (2020, Oct 8). “Shale / RU Geology / by Grace Psenicska.” [Online Model]. SketchFab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/shale-ru-geology-by-grace-psenicska-80e4de099de248b9abb5d7b5b96d89b3 CC BY.

  • Shale

Fig. 3.6.10. rockdoc. (2020, Aug 11). “Halite.” [Online Model]. SketchFab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/halite-323cf8eb403d459e9d0359d68ab1cf1d CC BY-NC.

  • Rock Salt/Halite

Fig. 3.6.11. Charlene Estrada. (2021, Apr 20). “Formation of evaporite rocks.” [Online Image]. Sedimentary Rocks. https://open.maricopa.edu/app/uploads/sites/119/2021/01/Screen-Shot-2021-04-20-at-10.04.02-PM.png CC BY 4.0.

  • Formation of evaporite sedimentary rocks.

Fig. 3.6.12. EDUROCK – EDUCATIONAL VIRTUAL ROCK COLLECTION. (2019, Sep 9). “Gypsum.” [Online Model]. SketchFab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/gypsum-de785119fe014b5e998a17e0fdcf6850 CC BY.

  • Rock gypsum

Fig. 3.6.13. rocksandminerals. (2020, Jun 4). “Chert #1637 06-04-20.” [Online Model]. SketchFab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/chert-1637-06-04-20-4d7a2916c0014af18564b4963e020358 CC BY.

  • Chert

 

Fig. 3.6.14. Mary Ann Tiffany and Andrea Dawes. (2017). “figure12.3.1.” [Online Image].  https://rwu.pressbooks.pub/app/uploads/sites/7/2017/01/figure12.3.1.png CC BY.

Fig. 3.6.15. Théobald GUFFON. (2020, Jan 31). “Limestone outcrop 1.” [Online Model]. SketchFab.https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/limestone-outcrop-1-0df28c23fe0e42c49b2f8c329d8c5c95 CC BY-NC-SA.

  • Limestone

Fig. 3.6.16. rocksandminerals. (2020, Feb 16). “Fossiliferous Limestone 2/16/2020.” [Online Model]. SketchFab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/fossiliferous-limestone-2162020-106bbda8989e47ed95a676e5cbff4964 CC BY.

  • Fossiliferous limestone.

Fig. 3.6.17.  Digital Atlas of Ancient Life. (2020, Jul 21). “Sedimentary Rock: Coquina.” [Online Model]. SketchFab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/sedimentary-rock-coquina-8e6d63f9a7ab42b0ac65b9178b6eff3e CC BY-SA.

  • Coquina

Fig. 3.6.18. PalomarESES. (2021, Feb 15). “Chalk.” [Online Model]. SketchFab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/chalk-225a3dec9c114026a1f0f19e2ae5690d CC BY-ND.

  • Chalk

Fig. 3.6.19.  Byrd Polar & Climate Research Center. (2021, Jan 28). “UN-225 (Bituminous Coal [Kentucky]).” [Online Model]. SketchFab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/un-225-bituminous-coal-kentucky-bcc7c84830ef49eaab5b6323dd4418bc CC BY-ND.

  • Coal

3.7

Fig 3.7.1. Dieter Mueller. (2004, Oct 30). “Folding_of_alternate_layers_of_limestone_layers_with_chert_layers.” [Online Image]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Folding_of_alternate_layers_of_limestone_layers_with_chert_layers.jpg CC BY-SA 4.0.

  • Heavily folded limestone and chert layers.

Fig. 3.7.2. Woudloper. (2007, Sep 2). “Zermatt_schists.” [Online Image]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Zermatt_schists.JPG Public Domain.

  • Foliated layers of mica-schist.

Fig. 3.7.3. Oymtu. (2010, Feb18). “Gneisssic_texture.” [Online Image.] Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gneisssic_texture.JPG Public Domain.

  • Banded gneiss.

Fig. 3.7.4. Steven Earle. (n.d.). “image006.” [Online Image]. Physical Geology – 2nd Edition. https://openpress.usask.ca/physicalgeology/chapter/10-2-foliation-and-rock-cleavage/ CC BY 4.0.

  • Differential stress causes banding of mineral grains in metamorphic rocks.

Fig. 3.7.5. Randolph Black. (2018, Jan 10). “Quartzite_01_10x_(27840457419).” [Online Image]. Wikimedia Commons. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Quartzite_01_10x_(27840457419).jpg Public Domain.

  • Non-foliated metamorphic rock texture.

Video 3.7.1. Estrada, C. (Apr 22, 2021) In a Nutshell: Metamorphic Grade. [Online Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kxFnG2v4rkQ

Fig. 3.7.6. rocksandminerals. (2020, May 28). “gray slate #77 5-28-2020.” [Online Model]. Sketchfab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/gray-slate-77-5-28-2020-742becfb4f484fca9c9e1f2888d55705 CC BY.

  • Slate

Fig 3.7.7. Dr. Parvinder Sethi. (2020, Sep 19). “Phyllite / RU Geology / by Grace Psenicska.” [Online Model]. Sketchfab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/orthogneiss-ab4861c508bb4b0a8e39eefeb191661c CC BY.

  • Phyllite

Video 3.7.2. Estrada, C. (Apr 22, 2021). Garnet Schist Hand Sample. [Online Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FPbOd14O0Bs

Fig. 3.7.8. Sara Carena. (2021, Jan 23). “Orthogneiss.” [Online Model]. Sketchfab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/orthogneiss-ab4861c508bb4b0a8e39eefeb191661c CC BY-NC.

  • Gneiss

Fig. 3.7.9. EDUROCK – EDUCATIONAL VIRTUAL ROCK COLLECTION. (2019, Nov 11). “Marble.” [Online Model]. Sketchfab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/marble-3e6a621e4b084e44b78e71e9eabfad99 CC BY.

  • Marble

Fig. 3.7.10. rocksandminerals. (2020, May 26). “quartzite #76 05-26-2020.” [Online Model]. Sketchfab. https://sketchfab.com/3d-models/quartzite-76-05-26-2020-d67bc8e8f2724e0c808bbf14724a050a CC BY-NC.

  • Quartzite

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DP22_Ch03_Minerals and rocks PDF Text only

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Dynamic Planet: Exploring Geological Disasters and Environmental Change by Charlene Estrada, Carolina Michele Londono, Merry Wilson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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