9.8 Attributions and References

Creative Commons Attributions for Chapter Text

​[1] An Introduction to Geology by Chris Johnson, Matthew D. Affolter, Paul Inkenbrandt, Cam Mosher is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

[2] Natural Disasters and Human Impacts by R. Adam Dastrup, MA, GISP is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

[3] Physical Geology – 2nd Edition by Steven Earle is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

[4] Geology by Lumen Learning is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


Media Assets

Fig. 9.0. Maps, D. (2018). [Pointes foliacées, culture du Szeletien, Musée de Moravie, Brno, République Tchèque] [Photograph]. Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved April 21, 2021, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pointes_foliac%C3%A9es_Brno_Museum.jpg

  • Image showing various stone artifacts showing pointy tips. They resemble the first weapons and tools used by humans.


Fig. 9.1.1. Salisbury, S. (2012). Morenci Mine 2012. Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved March 13, 2021, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Morenci_Mine_2012.jpg, CC BY 2.0

  • Image of the open-pit copper mine in Arizona

Fig.  9.1.2.  Earle, S (n.d.). The key components of an Ipad Air. Physical Geology. Retrieved April 6, 2021, https://opentextbc.ca/physicalgeology2ed/part/chapter-20-geological-resources/ CC BY-SA

  • Image of a digital device showing the elemental composition of the main components.

Fig 9.1.3. Minerals Education Coalition. (2020). Mineral Baby 2020 [Image]. Minerals Education Coallition. Retrieved April 20, 2021, https://mineralseducationcoalition.org/mining-mineral-statistics/

Fig 9.1.4. Londoño, D. (2021). Main elements in technology objects. CC-BY-NC 4.0

  • Image created for this textbook showing some of the main elements used for high-tech objects.

Fig. 9.1.5. Pavel, K. (2005). Schneider K15 ballpoint pen and the pen in parts. Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved April 6, 2021, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ballpoint-pen-parts.jpg CC BY-SA 2.5

  • Image of a ball pen whole and separated into its components used to show the geologic origin of the raw materials.


Fig. 9.2.1. Thomas, A. (2017). [Image of baskets containing colorful powdered minerals, from left to right, deep blue, ochre and vivid blue colors] ][Photograph]. Unsplash. Retrieved April 20, 2021,

  • Image of different mineral-derived pigments.

Fig 9.2.2. U. S. Geological Survey (2021). Major mineral deposits of the world. Image created using the interactive maps and downloadable data. Adapted from U.S. Geological Survey  (n.d.) Retrieved March 28, 2021, https://mrdata.usgs.gov/general/map-global.html#home. Public Domain CC-BY-SA

  • A world map with color-coded symbols that show the distribution of metals and geologic resources. The distribution is not even and some resources are concentrated along belts.

Fig 9.2.3. U.S. Geological Survey. (2021). Major Import Sources of Nonfuel Mineral Commodities for which the United States was greater than 50% Net Import Reliant in 2020.

  • A map of the world showing the main countries from where the U.S. imports minerals. China and Canada are highlighted.

Fig. 9.2.4. Ma’at Publishing. (2019). Peacock ore [Photograph]. Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved April 6, 2021, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:PeacockOre.jpg

  • Image of bornite mineral, a common ore for copper in Arizona.

Fig. 9.2.5. Lavinsky, R. (2010). Corundum-53802 [Photograph]. Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved April 26, 2021, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Corundum-53802.jpg#/media/File:Corundum-53802.jpg

  • Image of a typical corundum mineral, ore for the metal aluminum

Fig 9.2.6. Beregminer. (2020). Hematites botryoidal. Mina Santa Rosa, Tierga (Zaragoza). [Photograph]. Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved April 26, 2021, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hematites_tierga.jpg#/media/File:Hematites_tierga.jpg

  • Image of hematite, mineral ore for iron

Fig. 9.2.7 Lavinsky, R. (2010). Cinnabar-69330 [Photograph] Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved April 26, 2021, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cinnabar-69330.jpg#/media/File:Cinnabar-69330.jpg

  • Image of cinnabar, ore for mercury


Fig 9.3.1. PublicDomainPictures. (n.d.). Wire copper scrap [Photograph]. Pixabay. Retrieved April 20, 2021, https://pixabay.com/photos/wire-copper-electric-stop-closeup-2681887/

  • Image of copper wire.

Fig 9.3.2. Johnson, J. (2020). [Image of a young woman wearing a traditional Navajo dress and turquoise jewelry along with graduation regalia] [Photograph]. Source: Jenni Johnson, may not be reproduced without permission.

  • A young Diné graduate wears her traditional attire and jewelry along with graduation regalia showcasing the relationships between the Navajo and the mineral turquoise.

Fig. 9.3.3. (left): Butterfield, D and Holden, J. Black Smoker. Public domain. (right) Earl, S. (n.d.). Physical Geology. Retrieved April 6, 2021, from https://opentextbc.ca/physicalgeology2ed/chapter/20-1-metal-deposits/#footnote-885-1CC BY.

  • Left is an image of a black smoker on the Juan de Fuca Ridge. The right figure presents a model of the formation of a volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit on the seafloor.

Video 9.3.1. National Oceanographic Center. (n.d.). Cayman Hydrothermal vent field. Online Video. Retrieved May 17, 2022 from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RwiyGaOiLgs&ab_channel=NationalOceanographyCentre.

  • Images captured from the world deepest hydrothermal vents (in the Caribbean) showing the formation of mineral rich chimneys an the extrusion of mineral rich fluids. At sites like this mineral deposits are formed, including Gold and Zink.

Fig. 9.3.4. Earl, S. (n.d.). [Schematic cross-section of a porphyry deposit model] [Image]. Physical Geology. Retrieved April 20, 2021, https://opentextbc.ca/geology/chapter/20-1-metal-deposits/

  • A concept sketch showing the geologic setting for a porphyry deposit.

Fig. 9.3.5. United States Geological Survey (2021). Map of Copper deposit types in Arizona. Image created using the interactive maps and downloadable data from U.S. Geological Survey (n.d.) Retrieved March 28, 2021,   https://mrdata.usgs.gov/general/map-global.html#home. Public Domain CC-BY-SA

  • A screenshot of the copper deposits in Arizona.


Video 9.4.1. Dorsey, S. (2019). Bisbee Lavender Pit Mine, Arizona. [Online Video]. Retrieved May 17, 2022  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WP2uKNy5tSs&ab_channel=SteveDorsey

  • Flight over the Lavender Pit copper mine, Bisbee, Arizona. This video exemplifies the open pit mine operation.

Fig. 9.4.1. Earl, S. (n.d.) [Schematic cross-section of a typical underground mine] [Image]. Physical Geology. Retrieved April 20, 2021, https://opentextbc.ca/geology/chapter/20-1-metal-deposits/

  • Schematic of the underground mining operations.

Video 9.4.2. Fung, K. (2018) What is mineral processing? [Online Video]. Retrieved from: https://youtu.be/IgFo8Yi9k74

  • Short video showing the basics of separating minerals from rock.

Video 9.4.3. Pugh, D. (n.d.). Processing copper ore in Kitwe, Zambia. [Online Video]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Scxxx7ywRLk&t=20s&ab_channel=DonaldPugh.

  • Video containing all the details of the processing of the copper ore to retrieve the metal.


Fig. 9.5.1. St. John, J. (2010). Berkeley Pit & Continental Mine & Yankee Doodle Tailings Pond (Butte, Montana, USA).jpg [Aerial Photograph} Wikimedia Commons, Retrieved June 6, 2021, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Berkeley_Pit_%26_Continental_Mine_%26_Yankee_Doodle_Tailings_Pond_(Butte,_Montana,_USA).jpg

  • An image showing the size that a tailing pond can achieve.

Fig. 9.5.2 Stocker, C. NASA. (2002). Rio Tinto River. [Photograph].Wikimedia Commons, Retrieved June 6, 2021, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rio_tinto_river_CarolStoker_NASA_Ames_Research_Center.jpg

  • A picture showing an acid river running, making the landscape alien.

Fig. 9.5.3. United States Environmental Protection Agency (n.d.). Superfund National Priorities Responsive Map [Screenshot]. Retrieved May 18, 2022, from https://epa.maps.arcgis.com/apps/webappviewer/index.html?id=33cebcdfdd1b4c3a8b51d416956c41f1 CC-BY-SA.

  • Map of Arizona and S California with yellow diamonds and green circles showing clean up cites. Arizona has 6 clean up sites near Phoenix, one in Prescott and 2 in the south, near Tucson.


Fig. 9.6.1. Google Maps. (2021). Screenshot showing the mines near Tempe lake. Google Maps fair use.

  • A satellite image showing mining operations near the main canal of the river in an urban setting

Fig. 9.6.2. Minerals Education Coalition (2020). 2020 MEC Minerals Needed Every Year (Per Capita Use of Minerals). Mining and Mineral Statistics. Retrieved June 6, 2021, https://mineralseducationcoalition.org/mining-mineral-statistics

  • This graphic illustrates the quantity of minerals needed for each person in the United States this year. For example, based on 2019 production, 685 lbs. of cement will be needed to make the roads, sidewalks, bridges, schools and houses you will use this year.

Fig. 9.6.3. Unknown. (n.d.).  Casa Grande AZ- Casa Grande Ruins. [Photograph]. Wikimedia Commons. Retrieved June 6, 2021,https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Casa_Grande_AZ_-_Casa_Grande_Ruins_(NBY_431882).jpg

  • Historic picture of the Casa Grande archeological site in Coolidge AZ. The first masters of the desert built it more than 670 years ago.

Fig. 9.6.4. Commercial product advertising gypsum to reduce soil compaction due to clay, a common problem in Arizona. Image may be subject to copyright.


Arizona Geological Survey. Mining in Arizona. https://www.azgs.arizona.edu/minerals/mining-arizona

Cajete, G. (1999). Native science. Natural laws of interdependence. Clear Light Publishers.

Chris Johnson, Matthew D. Affolter, Paul Inkenbrandt, & Cam Mosher . An introduction to Physical Geology.

Curley, A. (June 28, 2017) The Navajo Nation’s coal economy was built to be exploded. High Country News. https://www.hcn.org/articles/analysis-tribal-affairs-cleaning-up-coal-on-navajo-nation

Kutz, J. (Feb. 1, 2021). The fight for an equitable energy economy for the Navajo Nation. High Country News. https://www.hcn.org/issues/53.2/south-coal-the-fight-for-an-equitable-energy-economy-for-the-navajo-nation

Earle, S. (2019). Chapter 1 Introduction to Geology. In Physical Geology—2nd Edition. BCcampus. https://opentextbc.ca/physicalgeology2ed/part/chapter-1-introduction-to-geology/

Rainey, J. (2017). Lighting the West, dividing a tribe. NBC news. https://www.nbcnews.com/specials/navajo-coal/

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2021, November). What is superfund?. United States Environmental Protection Agency. https://www.epa.gov/superfund/what-superfund.

U.S. Geological Survey, 2021, Mineral commodity summaries 2021: U.S. Geological Survey, 200 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/mcs2021.

U.S. Geological Survey. Mineral Resources Online Spatial Data. Interactive maps and downloadable data for regional and global analysis. https://mrdata.usgs.gov/

Instructor Resources

AGI Goli course: Assessing and Tracking Critical Mineral Commodities. https://www.americangeosciences.org/workforce/goli

The Minerals Education Coalition Website https://mineralseducationcoalition.org/mining-mineral-statistics/ contains a wealth of resources for educators, including downloadable datasheets and curriculum. Instructors could consider using the minerals in your life data sheets, careers in mining and importance of mining webpages.

U.S. Geological Survey. Mineral Resources Online Spatial Data. Interactive maps and downloadable data for regional and global analysis. https://mrdata.usgs.gov/

U.S. Geological Survey. Mineral commodities summaries. 2021.

Reading: Gold King Mine Spill https://superfund.arizona.edu/sites/superfund.cals.arizona.edu/files/understanding_the_gold_king_mine_spill_v13_preamble_final.pdf

Transcript for video 9.4.2

Mineral processing is the process of separating valuable minerals from ore. Imagine you have a chocolate-chip cookie, that is your ore, and the chocolate chips represent your valuable minerals, and the cookie dough is the waste rock. Your job as a mineral processor is to figure out how to extract the chocolate chips in the most efficient manner. But it is not as simple as that. Mineral processors need to have a strong understanding of physics, mineralogy, and chemistry to find the optimal method to process the ore. When you first receive the ore from the haul trucks, you will need to reduce the size of the ore through a series of crushing and grinding stages. This is where physics and mineralogy come in. Afterward, the size-reduced ore will proceed to the recovery stage, where the valuable minerals will be separated from the ore, and usually, it is done based on their surface chemical properties. As you gain more experience, you can even venture into different specialties such as process automation, developing nano drying technologies, or dive into electronics recycling. If you have a passion for physics and chemistry, and you like to design, analyze, and optimize processes, then you should consider a career in mineral processing!

Instructor Reference

DP22_Ch09_Mineral Resources and Mining


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Dynamic Planet: Exploring Geological Disasters and Environmental Change Copyright © 2021 by Charlene Estrada, Carolina Michele Londono, Merry Wilson is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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