4.5 Where are the Volcanoes?

Charlene Estrada

Distribution of Volcanic Activity

There are between 1400 and 1500 es on our planet right now, and they are unevenly distributed throughout Earth’s surface. Some volcanoes cluster in specific regions. The is an infamous area loosely spanning the border between continents and the Pacific Ocean (Fig. 4.5.3). This region spans about 40,000 kilometers and it has significantly more volcanic and compared to other places on the planet.

The USGS Volcano Hazards Program shows both monitored and unmonitored volcanoes in the United States. Along the Western Coast and Hawaii are 161 active volcanoes, some of which may erupt in the near future. CLICK THIS IMAGE TO GO SEE THE CURRENT STATUS OF THESE VOLCANOES!
Figure 4.5.1. Screenshot from the USGS Volcano Hazards Program (2021). Monitored and unmonitored volcanoes in the United States are mapped along with real-time status. Along the Western Coast and Hawai’i are 161 active volcanoes, some of which may erupt soon. Notice the legend on the bottom right. What does an orange triangle with an eye mean? Click on this image to see the current status of these volcanoes.

Why are so many volcanoes bunched together? Tectonic processes form most volcanoes such as at or at . Therefore, the distribution of volcanoes naturally coincides with plate boundaries. This connection between volcanism and plate boundaries is called . There are some volcanoes, however, that occur very far away from plate boundaries. They are typically the result of volcanism, which can occur on both continental and oceanic lithosphere.

Below, we will explore some of the broad geologic environments that result in volcanism and the types of volcanoes we might expect from each.

Mid-Oceanic Ridges

New is continuously being formed at . As two tectonic plates spread apart, the from the will rise to the surface and form brand new made of and . The exemplifies this process, and it is Earth’s longest mountain range! There are two sets of divergent boundaries at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge: the North American-Eurasian plate boundary to the north and the South American-African plate boundary to the south. Such a long along the ocean floor is responsible for the majority of Earth’s volcanism, but because it is deep underwater, it poses little to no risk to society.

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Figure 4.5.2. Map of the mid-ocean ridge system (yellow-green) in the Earth’s oceans. The Mid-Atlantic Ridge is on the right, transversing the globe south to north. “Mid-Ocean Ridge System“,  National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Public Domain.

Continental Rifts

The spreads in and in the continents! Although the continental lithosphere can be up to 100 km thick, divergent tectonic forces can break it apart. As a result, the continental crust will thin over time, and the lower layers of the crust and the will rise because they are buoyant. These uprising rocks in the lower lithosphere and mantle undergo (section 4.1) and ic magma will erupt from newly created volcanoes. The spread-apart regions on continents are called s. Most continental rift valleys form at where ocean basins have not yet opened. These places are sites of continental break-up, and we can see this process occurring today at the East African rift.

Convergent Boundaries

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Figure 4.5.3. The Pacific Ring of Fire is the area highlighted in red. Notice the location of trenches. Public Domain.

Recall from Ch. 2 that in between two oceanic plates or between an oceanic and continental plates, the denser oceanic lithosphere sinks toward the . Within the subduction zone, will form due to (Section 4.1).

The magma generated at the subduction zone is derived from the mantle and thus shares the same chemical composition; it is . However, if this mafic magma rises toward a continental plate, which is felsic, it will melt it partially. The new melt added to the magma will change the original magma composition, and it will become or even , when more continental crust gets melted into it. The result is a very viscous magma that will produce stratovolcanoes. es typically form at convergent boundaries. The Pacific , a continuous subduction zone, receives its name due to the abundance of with these explosive volcanoes.

A description of the Pacific Ring of Fire along western North America is below (Fig. 4.5.3):

  • at the middle American trench creates volcanoes in Central America.
  • The San Andreas fault is a .
  • Subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate beneath the North American plate creates the Cascade volcanoes like Mount St. Helens, Mount Rainier, Mount Hood, and more.
  • Subduction of the Pacific plate beneath the North American plate in the north creates the long chain of the Aleutian Islands volcanoes near Alaska.

Hot Spots

Figure 4.5.4. A simplified cross-section of Hawaiʻi Island and the Hawaiian hot spot (NPS Graphic) “Hawaiian Hot Spot“. Public Domain.

A volcanic “hotspot” is an area in the mantle from which heat rises as a thermal plume from deep in the Earth. High heat and lower pressure at the base of the lithosphere (tectonic plate) facilitates melting of the rock. This melt, called magma, rises through cracks and erupts to form volcanoes. As the tectonic plate moves over the stationary hot spot, the volcanoes are rafted away and new ones form in their place. This results in chains of volcanoes, such as the Hawaiian Islands (Video 4.5.1, from IRIS and Fig. 4.5.4). These islands are usually just “the tip of the iceberg” as they are often very large es that lie under the water (Fig. 4.5.4). Shield volcanoes form by low-, magma.

Video 4.5.1 Hotspot track animation. Observe the movement of the oceanic plate while the thermal plume remains in place.

Some hot spots form beneath the continental lithosphere. Although the partially melted composition is at depth, as it rises to the surface and mixes with the materials in within the , it becomes , then . In some areas, it might even become . This mixing of molten materials is a recipe for potential disaster! As the magma becomes more -rich, it also becomes more viscous with , which make for a very explosive eruption. In the United States, there is one active continental hot spot volcano we are currently monitoring: the Yellowstone Caldera (above), which is likely to have a super-volcanic eruption in the next 100,000 years.

Figure 4.5.5. Hot material rises from deep within Earth’s mantle and melts, forming basalt magma at the base of the crust. The rising magma encounters silica-rich continental crust on its journey upward forms a rhyolite magma chamber only 5 to 10 miles (8 to 16 kilometers) beneath Yellowstone National Park. National Park Service, Public Domain.

 

Backyard Geology: Sunset Crater National Monument Park
Two brightly colored cinder cone volcanoes (reds, grays, purples). Near the back is the larger Sunset Crater and toward the front of the image is an older unnamed cinder cone. Both are part of the San Francisco Volcanic Field of Northern Arizona.
Figure 4.5.6. Sunset Crater (near the back of the image) and an older, unnamed cinder cone near the foreground. Both were formed as part of the San Francisco Volcanic Field of Northern Arizona.

The Sunset Crater National Monument Park is a site of fairly recent volcanic activity (geologically-speaking!). The park encompasses two es; the Sunset Crater Volcano and Lenox Crater Volcano which have produced ic lavas and from their previous eruptions. The last eruption from Sunset Crater was about 950 years ago, and it was said to result in lava fountains that were nearly 3 times higher than the Statue of Liberty. Even though Sunset Crater erupted in the past 1000 years, we classify it as and we do not expect it to erupt again as the plate has since moved eastward. We call it the “Sunset Crater” because igneous rocks such as scoria have a lot of iron in them that easily rusts or oxidizes under Earth’s atmosphere from their original blackish-gray color to bright reds and purples, and pinks [10].