14.6 Attributions and References

Creative Commons Attributions for Chapter Text

The following resources have been used for research, starting points, and inspiration for this chapter and are available to all under Fair Use or Creative Commons licensing. Unless otherwise noted in Attributed References or Media Assets, materials have been significantly reworked by the authors of this text.


[1] Environmental Science by Sean Whitcomb is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.



[2] Introduction to Environmental Science 2nd Ed by Zehnder, C., Manoylov, K., Mutiti, S., Mutiti, C., VandeVoort, A. Galeleo Open Learning Materials is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0



[3] Natural Disasters and Human Impacts by R. Adam Dastrup, MA, GISP is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


[4] United States Geological Survey (USGS) is licensed under Public Domain.

[5] Arizona Geological Survey.  (AZGS) is licensed under CC-BY 4.0

[6] Chemical Principles by Zumdahl and Decoste is licensed under CC BY-NC-SA 4.0


Media Assets


Fig.14.0.1. U.S. Geological Survey (2023). The Water Cycle. Retrieved June 28, 2023. https://waterdata.usgs.gov/blog/water-cycle-release/. Public Domain

  • The retired USGS Water Cycle Diagram, first published in 2000, used in labs, classrooms, and textbooks worldwide.


Figure 14.1.1. U.S. Geological Survey (2018). Adhesion and Cohesion of Water. Retrieved June 28, 2023. https://www.usgs.gov/media/images/strong-polar-bond-between-water-molecules-creates-water-cohesion. Public Domain

  • This diagram shows the strong polar bonds between water molecules that create water cohesion, or “stickiness.”

Figure 14.1.2. Kathy Megivern. (2015). Water Mounded on Penny. Retrieved July 31, 2023. CC BY-SA

  • Photo shows cohesion keeping water mounded on a penny from flowing over the edge.

Video 14.1.1. Zaidan, George and Morton, Charles. (2014). Why Does Ice Float in Water? (3:56) [Online Video]. Retrieved June 20, 2023,  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UukRgqzk-KE&ab_channel=TED-Ed

  • Illustrates how water molecules behave as temperature drops and the relevance of the fact that ice floats.

Video 14.1.2. Plata, Koren. (2021). How Water Dissolves Ionic Substances. (2:23) [Online Video]. Canadian Museum of Nature. Retrieved June 20, 2023, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oVUCD80ll9M&ab_channel=KorenPlata

  • Illustrates how water molecules interact with ionic substances in dissolving them.

Fig. 14.1.3. MesserWoland based on Stiefelmaier, Daniel (graphics) (2006). Capillarity. Retrieved July 5, 2023. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Capillary_action#/media/File:Capillarity.svg CC BY-SA 3.0

  • Image of narrow tubes in water and in mercury. The image clearly shows the meniscus formed with water. And it shows an inverted meniscus in mercury where cohesion is stronger than its adhesion to the glass.


Fig. 14.2.1. Kmusser. (2007). Gila River Map. Retrieved June 8, 2023. File:Gilarivermap.png – Wikimedia Commons CC BY-SA 2.5

  • Map of Gila and Salt Rivers and some of their main tributaries

Fig. 14.2.2. Shannon1. (2011). Salt River Map. Retrieved June 8, 2023. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Salt_River_Map.jpg  File:Salt River Map.jpg – Wikimedia Commons  CC BY-SA

  • Map focusing on Arizona’s Salt River and its tributaries

Fig. 14.2.3. Adam Kliczek. (2012). Arizona, Lake Powell 01. Retrieved June 1, 2023. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arizona,_Lake_Powell_01.jpg, CC-BY-SA-3.0

  • View of Lake Powell from above its dam, Glen Canyon Dam.

Video 14.2.1. University of Wyoming Extension. (2017). Lake Stratification & Turnover. (1:40) [Online Video]. Retrieved July 2, 2023. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p_k5T2wnPSg&ab_channel=ExploringtheNatureofWyoming%7CUWyoExtension

  • Explains seasonal changes in a lake’s thermal layers and seasonal mixing, or turnover.

Video 14.2.2. Lake Pend Oreille Waterkeeper. (2022). Lake Ecology Educational Program Chapter 3: “Life cycle of a Lake.” (6:24) [Online Video]. Retrieved July 2, 2023. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kQHdQIObEnI&ab_channel=LakePendOreilleWaterkeeper

  • Illustrates how important characteristics of a lake change through time

Video 14.2.3. Atlas Pro. (2019). Simply Put: Eutrophication/Eutrophication Explained. (3:48) [Online Video]. Retrieved July 2, 2023. https://www.youtube.com/results?sp=mAEB&search_query=simply+put+eutrophication+


  • Explains what happens when a lake receives too many nutrients

Video 14.2.4. NOAA. What is eutrophication? (1:03) [Online Video]. Retrieved July 2, 2023. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=92TFJTtuq6k&ab_channel=usoceangov, CC BY

  • How too many nutrients in water bodies can lead to algal blooms, fish kills, and dead zones

Figure 14.2.4. U.S. Geological Survey. (1999 (approx.)). Groundwater is the Saturated Zone of Soil/Rock Below the Land Surface. Retrieved June 15, 2023. https://www.usgs.gov/media/images/groundwater-saturated-zone-soilrock-below-land-surface. Public Domain

  • Diagram illustrates saturated and unsaturated zones of groundwater and the water table that separates them.

Figure 14.2.5. Howard Perlman, U.S. Geological Survey. (2011 (approx.)). The Water Table: A Hole at the Beach Illustrates the “Water Table”. Retrieved June 27, 2023. https://www.usgs.gov/media/images/water-table-a-hole-beach-illustrates-water-table. Public Domain

  • Photo illustrates the level of the water table at a beach.

Video 14.2.5. 12News. (2023). 12News Special: Addressing Arizona’s Water Crisis. (2:38) [Online Video] Retrieved July 3, 2023. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=32JmYbUyPno&ab_channel=12News.

  • Highlights the need for critical action; effects on agriculture, cities, and startling effects on lakes and the Colorado River; and cuts in water usage.

Figure 14.2.6. Gross, Tara, U.S. Geological Survey. (2018). Cone of Depression: Pumping a Well Can Cause Water Level Lowering. Retrieved July 7, 2023. https://www.usgs.gov/media/images/cone-depression-pumping-a-well-can-cause-water-level-lowering. Public Domain

  • Diagram illustrates drawdown of the water table as water groundwater is pumped from a well faster than it can be recharged by precipitation.

Figure 14.2.7. Environment and Climate Change Canada via U.S. Geological Survey Water Science School. (Date Unknown). Aquifers and Wells. Retrieved July 6, 2023. https://www.usgs.gov/media/images/aquifers-and-wells. Public Domain

  • The illustration shows an artesian well and a flowing artesian well, which are drilled into a confined aquifer, and a water table well, which is drilled into an unconfined aquifer. Also shown are the Piezometric surface in the confined aquifer and the impermeable, confining layer between the confined and unconfined aquifer.

Video 14.2.6. Kelli’s Geology Lair. (2018). Groundwater, Springs, and Geysers. Retrieved July 10, 2023. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TIY_C1sSTdU&t=232s&ab_channel=Kelli%27sGeologyLair

  • Chosen especially for its Arizona examples that are included in this discussion of groundwater, springs, and geysers.

Video 14.2.7. MN Department of Agriculture. (2020). How Groundwater Moves in Southeast Minnesota: Karst Landscape. Retrieved July 10, 2023. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vAOcqHgwTfg&t=1s&ab_channel=mnagriculture

  • Features sinkholes, springs, caves, and disappearing stream


Video14.2.8. Atlas Pro. (2018). How Do Caves Form? Retrieved July 9, 2023. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EX0q5I3-HZI&t=4s&ab_channel=AtlasPro

  • High-interest video on discovery and rediscovery of Hang Son Doong, Vietnam, world’s largest cave by volume, plus very well-presented general information on cave formation 

Figure 14.2.8. Alex756. (2003). Bridal Brook Salt Marsh. Retrieved July 18, 2023. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bride-Brook-Salt-Marsh-s.jpg, CC BY-SA 3.0

  • An example of a marsh

Figure 14.2.9. Hollingsworth, John and Karen, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. (2009). View of Bond Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, Georgia. Retrieved July 18, 2023. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:View_of_Bond_Swamp_National_Wildlife_Refuge,_Georgia.jpg, Public Domain

  • Good example of a swamp

Figure 14.2.10. European Space Agency. (2016). Sierra Leone River Estuary. Retrieved July 18, 2023. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sierra_Leone_River_Estuary_ESA353596.jpg, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO

  • Satellite image of Sierra Leone estuary, where freshwater is flowing into the ocean.

Figure 14.2.11. USDA Forest Service. (2022). Tonto Begins Watershed Restoration Project. Retrieved June 18, 2023.  https://www.fs.usda.gov/detail/tonto/news-events/?cid=FSEPRD1000303, Public Domain

  • Photo of the gully that lowered the groundwater table, drying out the former fen.


Figure 14.3.1. MrGauravBhosle. (2016). Water-crisis. Retrieved June 28, 2023. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Water-crisis.jpg, CC BY-SA 4.0 International

  • Shows a woman carrying water on her head across dry, deeply cracked ground.

Figure 14.3.2. Chaarls442. (2020). Women Fetching Polluted Water in Ghana. Retrieved June 28, 2023. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_issues_in_developing_countries#/media/File:Women_fetching_polluted_water.jpg, CC BY-SA 4.0

  • Shows two women standing in murky water, filling containers


Figure 14.3.3. inkknife_2000. (2008). Navajo Nation, Hwy160 W, AZ. Retrieved July 29, 2023. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Navajo_Nation,_Hwy160_W,_AZ_9-11_(15543224245).jpg, CC BY-SA 2.0 Generic

  • A view of the semiarid lands of the Navajo Nation

Figure 14.3.4. U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2006). Discharge Pipe. Retrieved June 29, 2023. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Discharge_pipe.jpg, Public Domain

  • Shows murky water discharging from a large pipe into a body of water

Figure 14.3.5. Bob Nichols, Natural Resources Conservation Service. (2011). Louisiana. Retrieved July 19, 2023. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:NRCSLA00010_-_Louisiana_(4415)(NRCS_Photo_Gallery).jpg, Public Domain

  • Photo shows tractor spraying row crops

Figure 14.3.6. NOAA. (2012). Seal Entangled in Fishing Net. Retrieved July 19, 2023. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Seal_entangled_in_fishing_net_(7852752298).jpg, Public Domain

  • Photo shows scuba divers working to free seal from fishing net.


Figure 14.3.7. NOAA. (2010). Pacific Garbage Patch Map 2010. Retrieved July 19, 2023. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pacific-garbage-patch-map_2010_noaamdp.jpg, Public Domain

  • Map shows trash concentrations and ocean circulation patterns in the North Pacific Ocean.

Figure 14.3.8. Bob Nichols, Natural Resources Conservation Service. (2011). Louisiana. Retrieved July 19, 2023. https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?search=louisiana+manure+lagoon&title=Special:MediaSearch&go=Go&type=image, Public Domain

  • Photo of dairy waste management in East Louisiana showing waste treatment lagoon, containing manure and using it on the farm. 

Figure 14.3.9. Jack Pearce. (2014). Ohio Valley Mushroom Farm, Acid-Mine Drainage (AMD). Retrieved July 19, 2023. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ohio_Valley_Mushroom_Farm,_Acid-Mine_Drainage_(AMD)_(13670996183).jpg, CC BY-SA 2.0 Generic

  • Pervasive orange color associated with acid mine drainage is easy to see in this photo

Figure 14.3.10. NOAA. (2011). Dead Zone. Retrieved July 19, 2023. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dead_Zone_NASA_NOAA.jpg, Public Domain

  • Map of the “dead zone” formed by oxygen depletion, in the Gulf of Mexico.

Video 14.3.1. Ranamm. (3:56)(2006). Groundwater Animation. Retrieved June 3, 2023. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uQRvN6MUajE&ab_channel=Ranamm

  • Catchy musical cartoon depicting an amazing number of groundwater features


Figure 14.4.1. BrokenSphere. (2008). Arizona Cactus Garden 007. Retrieved July 20, 2023. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Arizona_Cactus_Garden_007.JPG, CC BY-SA

  • Photo of Arizona Cactus Garden on the Stanford University Campus


Video 14.5.1. Bozeman Science. (2016.) Water Resources. Retrieved July 10, 2023. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IDAj5T1ST7o&t=2s&ab_channel=BozemanScience

  • Excellent overview of water resources, beginning with a concept map, and ending with a review



We Are Water. Rivers: the testimony of the Earth’s veins.












https://www.fs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/stelprdb5385279.pdf  original doc quoted in https://www.fs.usda.gov/wildflowers/beauty/California_Fens/what.shtml (What is a Fen?)






Sjogren, Morgan. Drops of hope. Sierra. 2023;108(2):58-65.







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